Zhejiang Zhengyun Law Firm-China Lawyer http://www.zhengyunlawyer.com Our Law Firm provides legal services for foreign customers on International Trade, Intellectual Property, Investment in China and other affairs such as marriage and family, property inheritance, etc. Tue, 28 Jan 2020 22:02:26 +0800 zh-CN hourly 1 https://www.s-cms.cn/?v=4.7.5 Lawyer Cooperation Tue, 28 Jan 2020 22:02:26 +0800 If you are a lawyer in your country and need to work with a Chinese lawyer to handle a case in China, please contact us.


Email: info@zhengyunlawyer.com 

WhatsApp: 008618329190921

Wechat: 008618329190921

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Letter to customer Tue, 28 Jan 2020 22:02:26 +0800 Contacting the firm is free. We understand that the disputes facing you, your company or your business can seem daunting. It is our goal to put you at ease. Our services are described as below.

 

International Trade Dispute Legal Service

1.    Filing a lawsuit against any issue in InternationalTrade transactions on behalf of a client.

2.    Initiating a claim on behalf of a customer forproduct quality problems arising from International Trade transactions.

3.    Handling disputes on behalf of a client on Bills ofLading.

4.    Initiating a lawsuit against shipping companies,freight forwarders or suppliers for cargo transportation problems on behalf of aclient during International Trade transactions.

5.    Drafting, reviewing, amending and translating legaldocuments such as contracts, agreements and memoranda of International Trade.

6.    Issuing a lawyer's letter on behalf of a client tothe opposite party or negotiating with the opposite party on behalf of a clientin the event of a dispute in a certain part of International Tradetransactions.

7.   Debt collection on behalf of a client.

8.   Other disputes concerning International Trade contracts.

 

MultinationalIntellectual Property Dispute Legal Service

1.    Registering foreign customers’brands on behalf of a client in China Customs Intellectual Property ProtectionSystem.

2.    Making IPR protection plan for aclient.

3.    Investigation of IPR infringementfor a client.

4.    Advice on technical contracts.

5.    Filing an Intellectual Propertylawsuit on behalf of a client.

 

Investment in China Legal Advice

1.   Legal advice on company establishment andproject investment, covering government policies related to environmentalprotection, social insurance, etc.

2.   Business negotiation


Should you need any support or have any questions please feel free to contact us.



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Service Fee Tue, 28 Jan 2020 22:02:26 +0800 Our service fee standard is as below.


International Trade Dispute Legal Service

1. Filing a lawsuit against any issue in International Trade transactions on behalf of a client.

Service fee:1%-10% of the object amount, minimum3000 US dollars.

2. Initiating a claim on behalf of a customer for product quality problems arising from International Trade transactions.

Service fee:1%-10% of the object amount, minimum 2000US dollars.

3. Handling disputes on behalf of a client on Bills of Lading.

Service fee:1%-10% of the object amount, minimum 2000US dollars.

4. Initiating a lawsuit against shipping companies, freight forwarders or suppliers for cargo transportation problems on behalf of a client during International Trade transactions.

Service fee:1%-10% of the object amount, minimum3000 US dollars.

5. Drafting,reviewing, amending and translating legal documents such as contracts,agreements and memoranda of International Trade.

Service fee:1%-10% of the object amount, minimum 500US dollars.

6. Issuing a lawyer's letter on behalf of a client to the opposite party or negotiating with the opposite party on behalf of a client in the event of a dispute in a certain part of International Trade transactions.

Service fee:1%-10% of the object amount, minimum 500US dollars.

7. Debt collection on behalf of a client.

Service fee:10%-50% of the object amount, minimum 500US dollars.

8. Other disputes concerning International Trade contracts.

Service fee:1%-10% of the object amount, minimum 500US dollars.

 

Intellectual Property Dispute Legal Service

1. Registering foreign customers’ brands on behalf of a client in the China Customs Intellectual Property Protection System.

Service fee: minimum 500 US dollars.

2. Making IPR protection plan for a client.

Service fee: 1%-10% of the object amount, minimum 2000 US dollars.

3. Investigation of IPR infringement for a client.

Service fee:1%-10% of the object amount, minimum 2000 US dollars.

4. Advice on technical contracts.

Service fee:1%-10% of the object amount, minimum 2000 US dollars.

5. Filing an Intellectual Property lawsuit on behalf of a client.

Service fee:1%-10% of the object amount, minimum 2000 US dollars.

6. Apply for a patent on behalf of a client.

Service fee: minimum 2000 US dollars.


Legal Advice on Investment in China 

1. Legal advice on company establishment and project investment, covering government policies related to environmental protection, social insurance, etc.

Service fee:1%-10% of the object amount, minimum 2000 US dollars.

2.  Business negotiation.

Service fee:1%-10% of the object amount, minimum 2000 US dollars.

3.   Legality and compliance review on an investment.

Service fee: 1%-10% of the object amount, minimum 2000 US dollars.

4.   Risk control for an investment.

Service fee: 1%-10% of the object amount, minimum 2000 US dollars.


Other Foreign affairs

1. Marriage and family.

Service fee: negotiable.

2. Property inheritance.

Service fee: negotiable.

3. Legal counsel for foreign companies.

Service fee: negotiable.

4. Other affairs.

Service fee: negotiable.



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Practice Areas Tue, 28 Jan 2020 22:02:26 +0800 We are lawyers in China. Our services are described as below but our service content and categories are not limited to the following descriptions. As long as you have any cases, you can contact us.

 

International Trade Dispute Legal Service

1.    Filing a lawsuit against any issue in International Trade transactions on behalf of a client.

2.    Initiating a claim on behalf of a customer for product quality problems arising from International Trade transactions.

3.    Handling disputes on behalf of a client on Bills ofLading.

4.    Initiating a lawsuit against shipping companies,freight forwarders or suppliers for cargo transportation problems on behalf of a client during International Trade transactions.

5.    Drafting, reviewing, amending and translating legal documents such as contracts, agreements and memoranda of International Trade.

6.    Issuing a lawyer's letter on behalf of a client to the opposite party or negotiating with the opposite party on behalf of a client in the event of a dispute in a certain part of International Tradetransactions.

7.   Debt collection on behalf of a client.

8.   Other disputes concerning International Trade contracts.

 

Intellectual Property Dispute Legal Service

1.    Registering foreign customers’ brands on behalf of a client in China Customs Intellectual Property Protection System.

2.    Making IPR protection plan for a client.

3.    Investigation of IPR infringement for a client.

4.    Advice on technical contracts.

5.    Filing an Intellectual Property lawsuit on behalf of a client.

6.    Apply for a patent on behalf of a client.

 

Legal Advice on Investment in China 

1.   Legal advice on company establishment and project investment, covering government policies related to environmental protection, social insurance, etc.

2.   Business negotiation.

3.   Legality and compliance review on an investment.

4.   Risk control for an investment.


Other Foreign affairs

1. Marriage and family.

2. Property inheritance.

3. Legal counsel for foreign companies.

4. Other affairs.


Should you need any support or have any questions please feel free to write to info@zhengyunlawyer.com  or click "Contact Us".

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About Us Tue, 28 Jan 2020 22:02:26 +0800     Founded in 2009, Zhejiang Zhengyun Law Firm, with a team of dedicated and qualified lawyers, is a professional law firm based in Hangzhou, China. The law firm provides a wide range of legal services to foreign clients, including legal services on International Trade dispute, International Intellectual Property dispute and foreign companies' investment in China.


History of the firm:

    Zhejiang Zhengyun Law Firm was established in 2009 by Zhejiang Provincial Department of Justice. The firm is adjacent to the beautiful Xixi Wetland, with elegant office environment and convenient transportation. The firm is headed by Zhu Qingliang, a senior lawyer who has been practicing for nearly 20 years. The law firm has more than ten full-time lawyers. Adhering to the spirit of “excellent firm”, the firm has gradually formed a professional team through the development of nearly ten years.

Advantages of the firm:

    First, the firm is good at handling difficult, major criminal cases, civil and commercial cases.

    Second, the firm has established cooperative relationships with well-known scholars in some colleges and universities through various channels. We practice through new legal theories and actively optimize existing resources to better provide legal services to customers.

    Third, we have a consultation system for difficult cases. Since the establishment of the firm, it has handled a number of difficult and major cases, and invited well-known jurists to participate in specific cases.
    Fourth, the firm's lawyers are serious and responsible, with a solid theoretical foundation and rich practical experience. They can handle all kinds of litigation and non-litigation cases well and can meet the legal needs of various clients.

Business scope of the firm:

    Provide clients with legal services for international trade disputes, including negotiation, litigation and arbitration.

    Provide clients with legal services on setting up a corporate and investment projects in China.

    Provide clients with civil and economic case litigation agency services and arbitration case agency services.

    Provide legal advisory services to companies.
    Provide personnel, labor and legal relations services for enterprises.
    Venture capital and financing consulting services.
    Full legal services such as construction and real estate development.
    Provide legal assistance, counseling and defense services for various criminal cases.

    Provide other legal services at the request of the client.

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We helped a Cameroon client draft a regional exclusive agency agreement. Tue, 28 Jan 2020 22:02:26 +0800
A Cameroon customer cooperates with a Shenzhen Company in China. The Shenzhen company of China exports products to the client in Cameroon, and it is agreed that the client in Cameroon will exclusively represent a certain product in several countries in Africa. The agreement covers product quality, exclusive agency area, product price, liability for breach of contract, applicable law, and court of jurisdiction,etc.
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We helped a US client draft a contract. Tue, 28 Jan 2020 22:02:26 +0800 A US customer and a company in Beijing, China, want to reach a strategic cooperation. The cooperation covers product import and export, quality assurance, after-sales service, confidentiality agreement and liability for breach of contract. The US client entrusted our law firm to draft a cooperation agreement, and we completed the drafting of the strategic cooperation agreement and delivered it to the US customer within two working days.

The agreement is beneficial to protect the legitimate rights and interests of the client. If there is a dispute in the future, the agreement will help increase the chances of winning the lawsuit to the client.
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Our law firm helped a customer from Africa get back their payment from a company in Shenzhen. Tue, 28 Jan 2020 22:02:26 +0800 The Republic of Cape Verde, with a population of more than 500,000, is a country in Africa and has close trade with China. Andrea, a customer from the country, has a dispute over international sales contracts with a company in Shenzhen, China, and entrusted our law firm to handle this dispute. The team of the foreign legal affairs department of our law firm quickly started to work to protect the legitimate rights and interests of the customer, safeguard the fairness and justice of the society, safeguard the correct implementation of the law, maintain the normal order of international trade and safeguard China's image. In the end, the defaulting party Shenzhen Company refunded the money to the customer as scheduled.

Customer's comments when receiving the payment:



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We helped a customer from Ireland who has a dispute with her shipping forwarder Tue, 28 Jan 2020 22:02:26 +0800 An Irish customer purchased products from China for the first time. Due to the production delay of the manufacturer and problems with the connection between the manufacturer and the freight forwarder, the customer missed the scheduled ship, resulting in a significant increase in shipping costs and other losses.

The manufacturer and freight forwarder, shirking their responsibilities, having no responsibility and integrity, each fabricating a story full of lies and greed, seriously damaging the international reputation of China's manufacturing industry.  The foreign customer cried, "We really regret buying from China." After receiving the customer's request, we acted as a free agent for the customer and helped the customer recover some of the losses.We also introduced other aspects of China to the clients and helped our clients build confidence in Chinese manufacturing and Chinese businessmen.


Customer's comments:




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We helped a Swedish customer Tue, 28 Jan 2020 22:02:26 +0800 A Swedish customer signed an International trade contract with a new energy automobile company in Yangzhou, China on September 5, 2018. The contract stipulates that the seller needs to ship the goods within 35 days after the buyer pays the deposit. The Swedish buyer paid a 30% deposit to Yangzhou Company on September 6, 2018. After receiving the deposit, the Yangzhou Company delayed for 8 months without shipping the goods. The Swedish customer contacted our law firm in June 2019 and entrusted us to handle the case. With the help of our lawyers, the Yangzhou Company returned the full deposit on August 5, 2019.


Customer's comments.




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We helped an Afghan customer Tue, 28 Jan 2020 22:02:26 +0800 An Afghan customer signed a contract in June 2018 with a company in Hunan, China. The contract stipulates that the Hunan company exports the ordered products to Afghanistan. The Afghan customer paid the full amount of the order amount to the Hunan company in July 2018. After the Hunan company received the payment, it still did not ship goods after the delivery date. Finally, the company no longer responded to the customer's emails. The Afghan customer contacted our Zhejiang Zhengyun Law Firm through the Internet in March 2019. The customer described the case to us in detail and entrusted our lawyers to handle the case. After our lawyers took over the case, the lawyers informed the Afghan customer to provide evidences and started working on the case. After four months of work by our lawyers, the Hunan company finally delivered the goods to Afghan customers in July 2019.


Customer's comments.



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Latest China-US trade talks end, revealing fewer details but continuing efforts Tue, 28 Jan 2020 22:02:26 +0800 By Wang Cong Source:Global Times Published: 2019/5/2 15:59:12


Unlike previous rounds of negotiations between Chinese and US trade officials, the latest meetings in Beijing, which ended on Wednesday, had fewer details about specific discussions and results. 


That left many to wonder whether the two economic powers have hit an impasse in the tough talks and whether a trade agreement that would end their yearlong trade tussle is still within reach as it had appeared to be. 


Though there remain some sticky points and tougher obstacles as they approach the end of the extensive talks, one thing remains very clear: Both sides voiced commitment to the talks, Chinese analysts said. And some even argued that fewer details mean they are closer to a deal.


Following the two-day meetings in Beijing, the 10th one since last year, officials on both sides appeared restrained in announcing major progress in discussions over specific issues as they did in the previous rounds.


On Wednesday night, the Xinhua News Agency published a very short report on the talks between Chinese Vice Premier Liu He and US Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer and US Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin.


It only mentioned that the talks had ended and that the two sides will hold another round of talks in Washington next week as planned.


For its part, the White House said in a statement on Wednesday that "discussions remain focused toward making substantial progress on important structural issues and rebalancing the US-China trade relationship," CNBC reported. But the statement did not offer details on the latest talks.


Tough issues 
 "This is very vague and shows that some tough issues still have to be discussed," said Huo Jianguo, vice chairman of the China Society for World Trade Organization Studies. "I think it reflects the fact that we are at the final stage of the negotiations and things are a lot more difficult at this stage." 


Media reports suggest that the two sides are still discussing key issues on structural issues, such as the US accusation of unfair subsidies in China, a mechanism to verify compliance and what to do with the tariffs the two have already imposed on hundreds of billions of dollars worth of each other's goods.


US officials have floated concessions on the verification and tariff issues, with Mnuchin saying that the US is open to being punished if found violating the potential agreement, and some US media outlets reported that the US would immediately remove a 10-percent duty on part of the $200 billion worth of Chinese goods.


"I think both sides are still eager to reach an agreement, but they also have to be more cautious because things could change," Huo told the Global Times on Thursday.


'No news is good news'
Chen Fengying, a research fellow at the China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations, said releasing less details from the latest talks is not a bad thing.


"No news is good news," Chen told the Global Times on Thursday, noting that, despite the lack of details from the latest meetings in Beijing, US officials remain optimistic in a potential trade deal. 


The CNBC report on Wednesday cited unnamed sources, saying that an announcement of a trade agreement between China and the US could come as early as next Friday. Mnuchin also suggested recently that a deal could be announced within the next two weeks.


However, Chen said that certain core issues might need to be addressed by the leaders of the two countries. Media reports have suggested that officials of the two sides are also working on a leaders' summit.

Posted in: ECONOMY,CHINA-US

Link: http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1148292.shtml


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Despite profound transformation, big powers vie for influence among Central and Eastern European Countries Tue, 28 Jan 2020 22:02:26 +0800 By Zhu Xiaozhong Source:Global Times Published: 2019/5/3 9:57:03 Last Updated: 2019/5/3 13:35:09


The year 2019 marks the 30 years’ transition of Central and Eastern European countries, a region that experienced massive change since 1989. Under the Constitutional framework, the states have established a multi-party parliamentary system, set up separation of powers, held regular elections, and continuously improved the legal system. And most have a functioning market economy that has shown continuous growth. 


Central and Eastern European countries are not only narrowing the gap between their economies and average economic levels of the European Union (EU) nations, but have gradually become a new growth engine for the EU economy.


The past 30 years have not changed geopolitical predicaments that have haunted these countries for centuries. Since the end of the Cold War, nations worldwide have enjoyed the benefits that emerged after the US-Soviet Union feud ended. 


The world has entered a new stage of peace and development. However, this does not change the fact that Central and Eastern Europe region is a hot spot of strategic significance for big powers and continues to witness long-standing rivalries.


There seems to be a golden rule in modern and contemporary European international relations that, for security reasons, most small and medium-sized countries choose to align themselves with single powers or blocs, and they choose various allies at different times and it continues to be the case long after the end of the Cold War. 


Out of political, economic, military, and geopolitical considerations, with various regional and sub-regional organizations in the European region, Europe has become the region with the most concentrated international organization network.


A few Central and Eastern European countries in the former Soviet bloc “returned to Europe” after exiting the Warsaw Pact, requesting to join the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), which offers security guarantee while the EU provides economic and development support. 


Today, 13 Central and Eastern European countries are NATO members, while 11 have joined the EU, while the other countries are expected to join either group. This is the first time in the modern era that Central and Eastern European countries have participated in Europe with full sovereignty and can share part of other countries’ sovereignty. 
 
Central and Eastern European countries, confronted with multiple crises in Europe, are seeking a path of political and economic development in line with their interests within the EU framework, thus affecting EU governance, common policies and European integration.
Given the growing regional power of the Central and Eastern Europe and its increasing impact on related factors, major world political powers all wish to boost their influence in the region out of their own interests. 


These nations, in particular, have started a new competition in the region. At present, there are five major forces active in the Central and Eastern European arena: the EU, Germany, the US, Russia, and China.
As more Central and Eastern European countries join the EU, it is natural that the EU will take advantage of institutional ties to regulate the political, economic and social lives of its members. 


It is for this reason that most countries in Central and Eastern Europe have completed the “grand project” of social transformation in less than 30 years. Germany, the biggest beneficiary of EU’s eastward expansion due to its geographic proximity, developed economy and market size. It has become the largest partner and source of funds for many Central and Eastern European countries in foreign trade. 
By launching the Berlin Process, Germany has promoted EU expansion in the western Balkan region to obtain economic and political benefits. Russia is an old ally of Central and Eastern European countries. Adhering to its traditional security concept, Russia makes use of its advantages – its resources and close connection with Orthodox Church as well as Slavic peoples – to maintain its influence in some Central and Eastern European countries to resist NATO’s containment of Russia. 


In recent years, Russia’s involvement in Central and Eastern European countries, especially with the Balkan nations, has aroused strong vigilance in European countries and the US, while the US has strengthened its influence over the years. 


While sanctioning Russia on the issue of Crimea, the US greatly strengthened its military presence in Central and Eastern Europe and transformed the countries bordering the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea into NATO’s eastern front to confront Russia militarily. 


As a latecomer, China has launched multi-faceted cooperation efforts with Central and Eastern European countries. However, some nations expressed concerns out of self-interest and a precautionary mentality and tried various approaches to interfere or constrain such cooperation. 


While continuing to promote cooperation with Central and Eastern European countries, China adheres to established diplomatic policies, calmly observes changing European geopolitics, reviews and assesses situations, and meanwhile, cooperates rationally with other states while trying its best to safeguard national interests.


The author is research fellow at Institute of East European, Russian, and Central Asian Studies, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. opinion@globaltimes.com.cn



Link of the news: http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1148329.shtml

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US anti-China policy against own interests Tue, 28 Jan 2020 22:02:26 +0800 Source:Global Times Published: 2019/5/4 22:08:40


Former US vice-president and Democratic presidential front-runner Joe Biden recently said China is not "bad folks" and China is not "competition for us." His remarks have sent waves across the US. People from President Donald Trump to core members of his team, including Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, have lashed out at Biden.


Biden also holds strong values-based prejudice against China. He insists that the reasons China does not pose a threat to the US are that China has its hands full dealing with its domestic and regional problems, such as tensions in the South China Sea, poverty in its western areas and corruption. 


It is very likely that Biden, as the Democratic 2020 presidential front-runner, will adjust his narrative on China under pressure from Republicans and conservative forces.


The current US administration deems China as its strategic competitor, as with a few US elites. But some people have brought the China threat theory to an extreme. That Biden, a veteran politician, publicly sang a different tune from the Trump administration at least shows he and some US elites believe the China threat theory played up by Washington has gone too far. 


China is the world's second-largest economy and still growing. US right-wing elites are concerned that the strength of China will exceed that of the US. Therefore, Washington feels it a big issue as to what kind of country China is and what China's development means to the US.


The problem is the US administration is dealing with this issue in a simplistic and extreme approach and seems to lack the ability to understand China and craft sensible policies. 


People like Pompeo hyped hostility and pushed forward extreme China policies. If China's policymakers react like their US counterparts, a new Cold War may soon take shape. 


Kiron Skinner, director of policy planning at the US State Department, said recently the rivalry between the two is "a fight with a really different civilization and a different ideology." But should different civilizations fight with each other? Is such a fight destined to be zero-sum? 


Since the US adopts an ideologically aggressive gesture, China has long felt threatened. But with China's growing strength, it has begun to feel that the US does not have such a strategy as to overthrow China, and more people believe the two countries can avoid a strategic collision.


Washington views China as its strategic competitor and launched a trade war against China, which has altered Chinese society's view toward the US. What China and the US mean to each other depends on how they interact with each other. If the US carries out forcible containment against China, then China has no other option but to take all necessary countermeasures.



Link of the news: http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1148461.shtml

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LAW OF SUCCESSION OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA Tue, 28 Jan 2020 22:02:26 +0800 LAW OF SUCCESSION OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 


Important Notice: This English document is coming from "LAWS AND REGULATIONS OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA GOVERNING FOREIGN-RELATED MATTERS" (1991.7) which is compiled by the Brueau of Legislative Affairs of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, and is published by the China Legal System Publishing House. In case of discrepancy, the original version in Chinese shall prevail. Whole Document LAW OF SUCCESSION OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA (Adopted at the Third Session of the Sixth National People's Congress, promulgated by Order No. 24 of the President of the People's Republic of China on April 10, 1985, and effective as of October 1, 1985)

Contents
Chapter I General Provisions
Chapter II Statutory Succession
Chapter III Testamentary Succession and Legacy
Chapter IV Disposition of the Estate
Chapter V Supplementary Provisions
Chapter I General Provisions
Article 1 This Law is enacted pursuant to the provisions of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China with a view to protecting the right of citizens to inherit private property.
Article 2 Succession begins at the death of a citizen. Article 3 Estate denotes the lawful property owned by a citizen personally at the time of his death, which consists of:
(1) his income;
(2) his houses, savings and articles of everyday use;
(3) his forest trees, livestock and poultry;
(4) his cultural objects, books and reference materials;
(5) means of production lawfully owned by him;
(6) his property rights pertaining to copyright and patent rights; and
(7) his other lawful property.
Article 4 Personal benefits accruing from a contract entered into by an individual are heritable in accordance with the provisions of this Law. Contracting by an individual, if permitted by law to be continued by the successor, shall be treated in accordance with the terms of the contract.
Article 5 Succession shall, after its opening, be handled in accordance with the provisions of statutory succession; where a will exists, it shall be handled in accordance with testamentary succession or as legacy; where there is an agreement for legacy in return for support, the former shall be handled in accordance with the terms of the agreement.
Article 6 The right to inheritance or legacy of a competent person shall be exercised on his behalf by his statutory agent. The right to inheritance or legacy of a person with limited capacity shall be exercised on his behalf by his statutory agent or by such person himself after obtaining the consent of his statutory agent.
Article 7 A successor shall be disinherited upon his commission of any one of the following acts:
(1) intentional killing of the decedent;
(2) killing any other successor in fighting over the estate;
(3) a serious act of abandoning or maltreating the decedent; or
(4) a serious act of forging, tampering with or destroying the will.
Article 8 The time limit for institution of legal proceedings pertaining to disputes over the right to inheritance is two years, counting from the day the successor became or should have become aware of the violation of his right to inheritance. No legal proceedings, however, may be instituted after the expiration of a period of 20 years from the day succession began.
Chapter II Statutory Succession
Article 9 Males and females are equal in their right to inheritance.
Article 10 The estate of the decedent shall be inherited in the following order: First in order: spouse, children, parents. Second in order: brothers and sisters, paternal grandparents, maternal grandparents. When succession opens, the successor(s) first in order shall inherit to the exclusion of the successor(s) second in order. The successor(s) second in order shall inherit in default of any successor first in order. The "children" referred to in this Law include legitimate children, illegitimate children and adopted children, as well as step-children who supported or were supported by the decedent. The "parents" referred to in this Law include natural parents and adoptive parents, as well as step-parents who supported or were supported by the decedent. The "brothers and sisters" referred to in this Law include blood brothers and sisters, brothers and sisters of half blood, adopted brothers and sisters, as well as step-brothers and step-sisters who supported or were supported by the decedent.
Article 11 Where a decedent survived his child, the direct lineal descendants of the predeceased child inherit in subrogation. Descendants who inherit in subrogation generally shall take only the share of the estate their father or mother was entitled to.
Article 12 Widowed daughters-in-law or sons-in-law who have made the predominant contributions in maintaining their parents-in-law shall, in relationship to their parents-in-law, be regarded as successors first in order
. Article 13 Successors same in order shall, in general, inherit in equal shares. At the time of distributing the estate, due consideration shall be given to successors who are unable to work and have special financial difficulties. At the time of distributing the estate, successors who have made the predominant contributions in maintaining the decedent or have lived with the decedent may be given a larger share. At the time of distributing the estate, successors who had the ability and were in a position to maintain the decedent but failed to fulfil their duties shall be given no share or a smaller share of the estate. Successors may take unequal shares if an agreement to that effect is reached among them.
Article 14 An appropriate share of the estate may be given to a person, other than a successor, who depended on the support of the decedent and who neither can work nor has a source of income, or to a person, other than a successor, who was largely responsible for supporting the decedent.
Article 15 Questions pertaining to succession should be dealt with through consultation by and among the successors in the spirit of mutual understanding and mutual accommodation, as well as of amity and unity. The time and mode for partitioning the estate and the shares shall be decided by the successors through consultation. If no agreement is reached through consultation, they may apply to a People's Mediation Committee for mediation or institute legal proceedings in a people's court.
Chapter III Testamentary Succession and Legacy
Article 16 A citizen may, by means of a will made in accordance with the provisions of this Law, dispose of the property he owns and may appoint a testamentary executor for the purpose. A citizen may, by making a will, designate one or more of the statutory successors to inherit his personal property. A citizen may, by making a will, donate his personal property to the state or a collective, or bequeath it to persons other than the statutory successors.
Article 17 A notarial will is one made by a testator through a notary agency. A testator-written will is one made in the testator's own handwriting and signed by him, specifying the date of its making. A will written on behalf of the testator shall be witnessed by two or more witnesses, of whom one writes the will, dates it and signs it along with the other witness or witnesses and with the testator. A will made in the form of a sound-recording shall be witnessed by two or more witnesses. A testator may, in an emergency situation, make a nuncupative will, which shall be witnessed by two or more witnesses. When the emergency situation is over and if the testator is able to make a will in writing or in the form of a sound-recording, the nuncupative will he has made shall be invalidated.
Article 18 None of the following persons shall act as a witness of a will: (1) persons with no capacity or with limited capacity; (2) successors and legatees; or (3) persons whose interests are related to those of the successors and legatees. Article 19 Reservation of a necessary portion of an estate shall be made in a will for a successor who neither can work nor has a source of income.
Article 20 A testator may revoke or alter a will he previously made. Where several wills that have been made conflict with one another in content, the last one shall prevail. A notarial will may not be revoked or altered by a testator-written will, a will written on behalf of the testator, a will in the form of a sound- recording or a nuncupative will.
Article 21 Where there are obligations attached to testamentary succession or legacy, the successor or legatee shall perform them. Anyone who fails to perform the obligations without proper reasons may, upon request by a relevant organization or individual, entail nullification of his right to inheritance by a people's court.
Article 22 Wills made by persons with no capacity or with limited capacity shall be void. Wills shall manifest the genuine intention of the testators; those made under duress or as a result of fraud shall be void. Forged wills shall be void. Where a will has been tampered with, the affected parts of it shall be void.
Chapter IV Disposition of the Estate
Article 23 After the opening of succession, a successor who has knowledge of the death should promptly notify the other successors and the testamentary executor. If one of the successors knows about the death or if there is no way to make the notification, the organization to which the decedent belonged before his death or the residents' committee or villagers' committee at his place of residence shall make the notification.
Article 24 Anyone who has in his possession the property of the decedent shall take good care of such property and no one is allowed to misappropriate it or contend for it.
Article 25 A successor who, after the opening of succession, disclaims inheritance should make known his decision before the disposition of the estate. In the absence of such an indication, he is deemed to have accepted the inheritance. A legatee should, within two months from the time he learns of the legacy, make known whether he accepts it or disclaims it. In the absence of such an indication within the specified period, he is deemed to have disclaimed the legacy.
Article 26 If a decedent's estate is partitioned, half of the joint property acquired by the spouses in the course of their matrimonial life shall, unless otherwise agreed upon, be first allotted to the surviving spouse as his or her own property; the remainder shall constitute the decedent's estate. If the decedent's estate is a component part of the common property of his family, that portion of the property belonging to the other members of the family shall first be separated at the time of the partitioning of the decedent's estate. Article 27 Under any of the following circumstances, the part of the estate affected shall be dealt with in accordance with statutory succession:
(1) where inheritance is disclaimed by a testamentary successor or the legacy is disclaimed by a legatee;
(2) where a testamentary successor is disinherited;
(3) where a testamentary successor or legatee predeceases the testator;
(4) where an invalidated portion of the will involves part of the estate; or
(5) where no disposition is made under the will for part of the estate.
Article 28 At the time of the partitioning of the estate, reservation shall be made for the share of an unborn child. The share reserved shall, if the baby is stillborn, be dealt with in accordance with statutory succession.
Article 29 The partitioning of a decedent's estate shall be conducted in a way beneficial to the requirements of production and livelihood; it shall not diminish the usefulness of the estate. If the estate is unsuitable for partitioning, it may be disposed of by such means as price evaluation, appropriate compensation or co-ownership.
Article30 A surviving spouse who remarries is entitled to dispose of the property he or she has inherited, subject to no interference by any other person.
Article 31 A citizen may enter into a legacy-support agreement with a person who, in accordance with the agreement, assumes the duty to support the former in his or her lifetime and attends to his or her interment after death, in return for the right to legacy. A citizen may enter into a legacy-support agreement with an organization under collective ownership which, in accordance with the agreement, assumes the duty to support the former in his or her lifetime and attends to his or her interment after death, in return for the right to legacy.
Article 32 An estate which is left with neither a successor nor a legatee shall belong to the state or, where the decedent was a member of an organization under collective ownership before his or her death, to such an organization.
Article 33 The successor to an estate shall pay all taxes and debts payable by the decedent according to law, up to the actual value of such estate, unless the successor pays voluntarily in excess of the limit. The successor who disclaims inheritance assumes no responsibility for the payment of taxes and debts payable by the decedent according to law.
Article 34 The carrying out of a legacy shall not affect the payment of taxes and debts payable by the legator according to law.
Chapter V Supplementary Provisions
Article 35 The people's congress of a national autonomous area may, in accordance with the principles of this Law and the actual practices of the local nationality or nationalities with regard to property inheritance, enact adaptive or supplementary provisions. Provisions made by autonomous regions shall be reported to the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress for the record. Provisions made by autonomous prefectures or autonomous counties shall become effective after being reported to and approved by the standing committee of the people's congress of the relevant province or autonomous region and shall be reported to the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress for the record.
Article 36 For inheritance by a Chinese citizen of an estate outside the People's Republic of China or of an estate of a foreigner within the People's Republic of China, the law of the place of domicile of the decedent shall apply in the case of movable property; in the case of immovable property, the law of the place where the property is located shall apply. For inheritance by a foreigner of an estate within the People's Republic of China or of an estate of a Chinese citizen outside the People's Republic of China, the law of the place of domicile of the decedent shall apply in the case of movable property; in the case of immovable property, the law of the place where the property is located shall apply. Where treaties or agreements exist between the People's Republic of China and foreign countries, matters of inheritance shall be handled in accordance with such treaties or agreements. Article 37 This Law shall go into effect as of October 1, 1985. [1] 
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Special Provisions on Foreign Civil Procedures Tue, 28 Jan 2020 22:02:26 +0800
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Part IV Special Provisions on Foreign Civil Procedures


Chapter 23 General Principles

    Article 259 The provisions of this Part shall apply to foreign-related civil litigation in the territory of the People's Republic of China. If there is no provision in this series, other relevant provisions of this Law shall apply.

    Article 260 Where an international treaty concluded or acceded to by the People's Republic of China has different provisions from this Law, the provisions of the international treaty shall apply, except for the terms reserved by the People's Republic of China.

    Article 261 Civil proceedings against foreigners, foreign organizations or international organizations enjoying diplomatic privileges and immunities shall be handled in accordance with the relevant laws of the People's Republic of China and the provisions of international treaties concluded or acceded to by the People's Republic of China.

    Article 262 When a people's court hears a foreign-related civil case, it shall use the language and scripts common to the People's Republic of China. If the parties request translation, they may provide it and the expenses shall be borne by the parties.

    Article 263 If a foreigner, stateless person, foreign enterprise or organization sues or responds to a lawsuit in a people's court and needs to entrust a lawyer to represent the lawsuit, it must entrust a lawyer of the People's Republic of China.

    Article 264 Foreigners, stateless persons, foreign enterprises and organizations that do not have a domicile in the territory of the People's Republic of China entrust a lawyer or other person of the People's Republic of China to represent the lawsuit and send or surrender from outside the territory of the People's Republic of China. The power of attorney shall be validated by the notary public of the host country and certified by the Chinese Embassy or Consulate in the country, or by performing the certification procedures stipulated in the relevant treaty between the People's Republic of China and the host country.

Chapter 24—Administration

    Article 265 A lawsuit brought by a defendant who does not have a domicile in the territory of the People's Republic of China due to a contract dispute or other property rights dispute, if the contract is signed or executed in the territory of the People's Republic of China, or the subject matter of the lawsuit is in the Chinese people In the territory of the Republic, or the defendant has property available for seizure in the territory of the People’s Republic of China, or the defendant has a representative office in the territory of the People’s Republic of China, which may be seized by the place where the contract is signed, the place where the contract is performed, the place where the subject matter of the litigation is located. The seat of the property, the place of the infringement or the people's court of the place where the institution resides.

    Article 266 The litigation brought about by the implementation of the Sino-foreign joint venture contract, the contract of a Chinese-foreign contractual joint venture, and the Sino-foreign cooperative exploration and development natural resources contract in the People's Republic of China shall be under the jurisdiction of the People's Court of the People's Republic of China.

Chapter 25 Delivery, Period

    Article 267 The people's court may serve the litigation documents against the parties who do not have a domicile in the territory of the People's Republic of China.

    (1) being served in the manner prescribed in the international treaty concluded or co-participated by the State of the addressee and the People's Republic of China;

    (2) being served through diplomatic channels;

    (3) The person who has the nationality of the People's Republic of China may entrust the embassy or consulate of the People's Republic of China to the place where the person to be served is served;

    (4) serving the litigation agent entrusted by the person to whom the person is entitled to serve on his behalf;

    (5) serving to the representative office established by the person to be served in the territory of the People's Republic of China or the branch or business agent entitled to receive the service;

    (6) If the law of the country where the person is served is allowed to be delivered by post, it may be served by post, three months from the date of mailing, and the return certificate is not returned, but it is sufficient to confirm that it has been delivered according to various circumstances. , the expiration of the period is deemed to be served;

    (7) by fax, e-mail, etc., to be confirmed by the recipient to receive the service;

    (8) If it cannot be served in the above manner, the announcement shall be served, and it shall be deemed to have been served for three months from the date of the announcement.

    Article 268 If the defendant does not have a domicile in the territory of the People's Republic of China, the people's court shall serve a copy of the complaint to the defendant and notify the defendant to file a reply within 30 days after receiving the copy of the complaint. If the defendant applies for an extension, it is up to the people's court to decide whether it is permitted.

    Article 269 If a party who does not have a domicile in the territory of the People's Republic of China refuses to accept the judgment or ruling of the people's court of the first instance, it shall have the right to appeal within 30 days from the date of service of the judgment or ruling. After receiving the copy of the appeal, the appellee shall file a reply within 30 days. If the parties are unable to file an appeal or file a defense during the statutory period, and whether the application for extension is permitted, the decision shall be made by the people's court.

    Article 270 The period during which a people's court hears a foreign-related civil case shall not be subject to the restrictions stipulated in Articles 149 and 176 of this Law.

Chapter 26—Arbitration

    Article 271 Where a dispute arises in a foreign-related economic, trade, transportation or maritime dispute, the parties shall have an arbitration clause in the contract or a written arbitration agreement after the event, and shall be submitted to the foreign-related arbitration institution of the People's Republic of China or other arbitration institution for arbitration. Prosecuted to the people's court

    If the parties do not have an arbitration clause in the contract or fail to reach a written arbitration agreement afterwards, they may file a suit in a people's court.

    Article 272 Where a party applies for preservation, the foreign-related arbitration institution of the People's Republic of China shall submit the application of the party to the intermediate people's court at the place where the respondent resides or where the property is located.

    Article 273 If the arbitral award is made by a foreign-related arbitration institution of the People's Republic of China, the parties may not sue the people's court. If one party fails to perform the arbitral award, the other party may apply to the intermediate people's court where the respondent is domiciled or where the property is located.

    Article 274 If the respondent lodges a ruling on a foreign-related arbitration institution of the People's Republic of China and proves that the arbitral award is in any of the following circumstances, it shall be examined and verified by a collegial panel of the people's court, and the ruling shall not be enforced:

    (1) The parties did not have an arbitration clause in the contract or did not reach a written arbitration agreement afterwards;

    (2) The respondent did not receive the notice of appointing an arbitrator or proceeding with the arbitral proceedings, or failed to state the opinion because of other reasons that were not the responsibility of the respondent;

    (3) The composition of the arbitral tribunal or the procedure for arbitration is inconsistent with the arbitration rules;

    (4) The matters of the award are not within the scope of the arbitration agreement or the arbitration institution has no right to arbitrate.

    If the people's court determines that the enforcement of the ruling violates the public interest, the ruling will not be enforced.

    Article 275 If the arbitral award is decided not to be enforced by the people's court, the parties may reapply for arbitration according to the written arbitration agreement reached between the parties, or may sue the people's court.

Chapter 27 Mutual Legal Assistance

    Article 276 According to the international treaties concluded or acceded to by the People's Republic of China, or in accordance with the principle of reciprocity, the people's courts and foreign courts may request each other to serve documents, investigate and collect evidence, and conduct other litigation.

    Where a foreign court’s request for assistance is detrimental to the sovereignty, security or social public interest of the People’s Republic of China, the people’s court shall not enforce it.

    Article 277 The request and provision of judicial assistance shall be conducted in accordance with the stipulations of international treaties concluded or acceded to by the People's Republic of China; if there is no treaty relationship, it shall be conducted through diplomatic channels.

    Foreign embassies and consulates in the People's Republic of China may serve documents and investigate and collect evidence from citizens of the country, but may not violate the laws of the People's Republic of China and may not take enforcement measures.

    Except as provided in the preceding paragraph, no foreign institution or individual may serve documents, investigate and collect evidence in the territory of the People's Republic of China without the permission of the competent authority of the People's Republic of China.

    Article 278 A request by a foreign court for a judicial assistance from a people's court and its accompanying documents shall be accompanied by a Chinese translation or other texts stipulated by international treaties.

    The request of the people's court for judicial assistance from a foreign court and the accompanying documents shall be accompanied by a translation of the country's text or other texts stipulated by international treaties.

    Article 279 The people's court provides judicial assistance in accordance with the procedures prescribed by the laws of the People's Republic of China. Where a foreign court requests a special method, it may also be conducted in a special manner as requested, but the special method requested may not violate the laws of the People's Republic of China.

    Article 280 If a person's court makes a judgment or ruling on the legal effect, if the executor or his property is not in the territory of the People's Republic of China and the party requests to execute it, the party may directly apply to the foreign court with jurisdiction for recognition. And enforcement may also be requested by the people's courts to be recognized and enforced by foreign courts in accordance with the provisions of international treaties concluded or acceded to by the People's Republic of China or in accordance with the principle of reciprocity.

    If an arbitral award made by a foreign-related arbitration institution of the People's Republic of China has a legal effect, if the party concerned or its property is not in the territory of the People's Republic of China, the party concerned shall apply directly to the foreign court with jurisdiction for recognition and enforcement.

    Article 281 Where a judgment or ruling by a foreign court that has legal effect requires the recognition and enforcement by the People's Court of the People's Republic of China, the party may directly apply to the Intermediate People's Court of the People's Republic of China for approval and enforcement. It may also be requested by the foreign courts to be recognized and enforced by the people's courts in accordance with the provisions of international treaties concluded or acceded to by the country and the People's Republic of China, or in accordance with the principle of reciprocity.

    Article 282 If a people's court makes a judgment or ruling on the legal effect of a foreign court that has applied for or requested to be recognized and executed, it shall not consider it according to the international treaty concluded or acceded to by the People's Republic of China, or after reviewing according to the principle of reciprocity. Anyone who violates the basic principles of the laws of the People's Republic of China or the sovereignty, safety, or public interest of the state shall, if it decides to recognize its validity and needs to be executed, issue an enforcement order in accordance with the relevant provisions of this Law. Any violation of the basic principles of the laws of the People's Republic of China or national sovereignty, security, or social public interests shall not be recognized and enforced.

    Article 283 If the ruling of a foreign arbitral institution requires the recognition and enforcement by the people's court of the People's Republic of China, the party concerned shall apply directly to the intermediate people's court where the executor's domicile or the place where the property is located, and the people's court shall follow the Chinese people. International treaties concluded or acceded to by the Republic, or in accordance with the principle of reciprocity.

    Article 284 This Law shall be implemented as of the date of promulgation, and the Civil Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China (Trial) shall be repealed at the same time.
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Company Law of the People's Republic of China Tue, 28 Jan 2020 22:02:26 +0800 Company Law of the People's Republic of China 



中华人民共和国公司法

(1993年12月29日第八届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第五次会议通过根据1999年12月25日第九届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十三次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国公司法〉的决定》第一次修正 根据2004年8月28日第十届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十一次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国公司法〉的决定》第二次修正 2005年10月27日第十届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十八次会议修订 根据2013年12月28日第十二届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第六次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国海洋环境保护法〉等七部法律的决定》第三次修正 根据2018年10月26日第十三届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第六次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国公司法〉的决定》第四次修正)

目  录

  第一章 总  则

  第二章 有限责任公司的设立和组织机构

    第一节 设  立

    第二节 组织机构

    第三节 一人有限责任公司的特别规定

    第四节 国有独资公司的特别规定

  第三章 有限责任公司的股权转让

  第四章 股份有限公司的设立和组织机构

    第一节 设  立

    第二节 股东大会

    第三节 董事会、经理

    第四节 监 事 会

    第五节 上市公司组织机构的特别规定

  第五章 股份有限公司的股份发行和转让

    第一节 股份发行

    第二节 股份转让

  第六章 公司董事、监事、高级管理人员的资格和义务

  第七章 公司债券

  第八章 公司财务、会计

  第九章 公司合并、分立、增资、减资

  第十章 公司解散和清算

  第十一章 外国公司的分支机构

  第十二章 法律责任

  第十三章 附  则

第一章 总  则

  第一条 为了规范公司的组织和行为,保护公司、股东和债权人的合法权益,维护社会经济秩序,促进社会主义市场经济的发展,制定本法。

  第二条 本法所称公司是指依照本法在中国境内设立的有限责任公司和股份有限公司。

  第三条 公司是企业法人,有独立的法人财产,享有法人财产权。公司以其全部财产对公司的债务承担责任。

  有限责任公司的股东以其认缴的出资额为限对公司承担责任;股份有限公司的股东以其认购的股份为限对公司承担责任。

  第四条 公司股东依法享有资产收益、参与重大决策和选择管理者等权利。

  第五条 公司从事经营活动,必须遵守法律、行政法规,遵守社会公德、商业道德,诚实守信,接受政府和社会公众的监督,承担社会责任。

  公司的合法权益受法律保护,不受侵犯。

  第六条 设立公司,应当依法向公司登记机关申请设立登记。符合本法规定的设立条件的,由公司登记机关分别登记为有限责任公司或者股份有限公司;不符合本法规定的设立条件的,不得登记为有限责任公司或者股份有限公司。

  法律、行政法规规定设立公司必须报经批准的,应当在公司登记前依法办理批准手续。

  公众可以向公司登记机关申请查询公司登记事项,公司登记机关应当提供查询服务。

  第七条 依法设立的公司,由公司登记机关发给公司营业执照。公司营业执照签发日期为公司成立日期。

  公司营业执照应当载明公司的名称、住所、注册资本、经营范围、法定代表人姓名等事项。

  公司营业执照记载的事项发生变更的,公司应当依法办理变更登记,由公司登记机关换发营业执照。

  第八条 依照本法设立的有限责任公司,必须在公司名称中标明有限责任公司或者有限公司字样。

  依照本法设立的股份有限公司,必须在公司名称中标明股份有限公司或者股份公司字样。

  第九条 有限责任公司变更为股份有限公司,应当符合本法规定的股份有限公司的条件。股份有限公司变更为有限责任公司,应当符合本法规定的有限责任公司的条件。

  有限责任公司变更为股份有限公司的,或者股份有限公司变更为有限责任公司的,公司变更前的债权、债务由变更后的公司承继。

  第十条 公司以其主要办事机构所在地为住所。

  第十一条 设立公司必须依法制定公司章程。公司章程对公司、股东、董事、监事、高级管理人员具有约束力。

  第十二条 公司的经营范围由公司章程规定,并依法登记。公司可以修改公司章程,改变经营范围,但是应当办理变更登记。

  公司的经营范围中属于法律、行政法规规定须经批准的项目,应当依法经过批准。

  第十三条 公司法定代表人依照公司章程的规定,由董事长、执行董事或者经理担任,并依法登记。公司法定代表人变更,应当办理变更登记。

  第十四条 公司可以设立分公司。设立分公司,应当向公司登记机关申请登记,领取营业执照。分公司不具有法人资格,其民事责任由公司承担。

  公司可以设立子公司,子公司具有法人资格,依法独立承担民事责任。

  第十五条 公司可以向其他企业投资;但是,除法律另有规定外,不得成为对所投资企业的债务承担连带责任的出资人。

  第十六条 公司向其他企业投资或者为他人提供担保,依照公司章程的规定,由董事会或者股东会、股东大会决议;公司章程对投资或者担保的总额及单项投资或者担保的数额有限额规定的,不得超过规定的限额。

  公司为公司股东或者实际控制人提供担保的,必须经股东会或者股东大会决议。

  前款规定的股东或者受前款规定的实际控制人支配的股东,不得参加前款规定事项的表决。该项表决由出席会议的其他股东所持表决权的过半数通过。

  第十七条 公司必须保护职工的合法权益,依法与职工签订劳动合同,参加社会保险,加强劳动保护,实现安全生产。

  公司应当采用多种形式,加强公司职工的职业教育和岗位培训,提高职工素质。

  第十八条 公司职工依照《中华人民共和国工会法》组织工会,开展工会活动,维护职工合法权益。公司应当为本公司工会提供必要的活动条件。公司工会代表职工就职工的劳动报酬、工作时间、福利、保险和劳动安全卫生等事项依法与公司签订集体合同。

  公司依照宪法和有关法律的规定,通过职工代表大会或者其他形式,实行民主管理。

  公司研究决定改制以及经营方面的重大问题、制定重要的规章制度时,应当听取公司工会的意见,并通过职工代表大会或者其他形式听取职工的意见和建议。

  第十九条 在公司中,根据中国共产党章程的规定,设立中国共产党的组织,开展党的活动。公司应当为党组织的活动提供必要条件。

  第二十条 公司股东应当遵守法律、行政法规和公司章程,依法行使股东权利,不得滥用股东权利损害公司或者其他股东的利益;不得滥用公司法人独立地位和股东有限责任损害公司债权人的利益。

  公司股东滥用股东权利给公司或者其他股东造成损失的,应当依法承担赔偿责任。

  公司股东滥用公司法人独立地位和股东有限责任,逃避债务,严重损害公司债权人利益的,应当对公司债务承担连带责任。

  第二十一条 公司的控股股东、实际控制人、董事、监事、高级管理人员不得利用其关联关系损害公司利益。

违反前款规定,给公司造成损失的,应当承担赔偿责任。

  第二十二条 公司股东会或者股东大会、董事会的决议内容违反法律、行政法规的无效。

  股东会或者股东大会、董事会的会议召集程序、表决方式违反法律、行政法规或者公司章程,或者决议内容违反公司章程的,股东可以自决议作出之日起六十日内,请求人民法院撤销。

  股东依照前款规定提起诉讼的,人民法院可以应公司的请求,要求股东提供相应担保。

  公司根据股东会或者股东大会、董事会决议已办理变更登记的,人民法院宣告该决议无效或者撤销该决议后,公司应当向公司登记机关申请撤销变更登记。

第二章 有限责任公司的设立和组织机构

第一节 设  立

  第二十三条 设立有限责任公司,应当具备下列条件:

  (一)股东符合法定人数;

  (二)有符合公司章程规定的全体股东认缴的出资额;

  (三)股东共同制定公司章程;

  (四)有公司名称,建立符合有限责任公司要求的组织机构;

  (五)有公司住所。

  第二十四条 有限责任公司由五十个以下股东出资设立。

  第二十五条 有限责任公司章程应当载明下列事项:

    (一)公司名称和住所;

    (二)公司经营范围;

    (三)公司注册资本;

    (四)股东的姓名或者名称;

    (五)股东的出资方式、出资额和出资时间;

    (六)公司的机构及其产生办法、职权、议事规则;

    (七)公司法定代表人;

    (八)股东会会议认为需要规定的其他事项。

    股东应当在公司章程上签名、盖章。

    第二十六条 有限责任公司的注册资本为在公司登记机关登记的全体股东认缴的出资额。

    法律、行政法规以及国务院决定对有限责任公司注册资本实缴、注册资本最低限额另有规定的,从其规定。

    第二十七条 股东可以用货币出资,也可以用实物、知识产权、土地使用权等可以用货币估价并可以依法转让的非货币财产作价出资;但是,法律、行政法规规定不得作为出资的财产除外。

    对作为出资的非货币财产应当评估作价,核实财产,不得高估或者低估作价。法律、行政法规对评估作价有规定的,从其规定。

    第二十八条 股东应当按期足额缴纳公司章程中规定的各自所认缴的出资额。股东以货币出资的,应当将货币出资足额存入有限责任公司在银行开设的账户;以非货币财产出资的,应当依法办理其财产权的转移手续。

    股东不按照前款规定缴纳出资的,除应当向公司足额缴纳外,还应当向已按期足额缴纳出资的股东承担违约责任。

    第二十九条 股东认足公司章程规定的出资后,由全体股东指定的代表或者共同委托的代理人向公司登记机关报送公司登记申请书、公司章程等文件,申请设立登记。

    第三十条 有限责任公司成立后,发现作为设立公司出资的非货币财产的实际价额显著低于公司章程所定价额的,应当由交付该出资的股东补足其差额;公司设立时的其他股东承担连带责任。

    第三十一条 有限责任公司成立后,应当向股东签发出资证明书。

    出资证明书应当载明下列事项:

    (一)公司名称;

    (二)公司成立日期;

    (三)公司注册资本;

    (四)股东的姓名或者名称、缴纳的出资额和出资日期;

    (五)出资证明书的编号和核发日期。

    出资证明书由公司盖章。

    第三十二条 有限责任公司应当置备股东名册,记载下列事项:

    (一)股东的姓名或者名称及住所;

    (二)股东的出资额;

    (三)出资证明书编号。

    记载于股东名册的股东,可以依股东名册主张行使股东权利。

    公司应当将股东的姓名或者名称向公司登记机关登记;登记事项发生变更的,应当办理变更登记。未经登记或者变更登记的,不得对抗第三人。

    第三十三条 股东有权查阅、复制公司章程、股东会会议记录、董事会会议决议、监事会会议决议和财务会计报告。

    股东可以要求查阅公司会计账簿。股东要求查阅公司会计账簿的,应当向公司提出书面请求,说明目的。公司有合理根据认为股东查阅会计账簿有不正当目的,可能损害公司合法利益的,可以拒绝提供查阅,并应当自股东提出书面请求之日起十五日内书面答复股东并说明理由。公司拒绝提供查阅的,股东可以请求人民法院要求公司提供查阅。

    第三十四条 股东按照实缴的出资比例分取红利;公司新增资本时,股东有权优先按照实缴的出资比例认缴出资。但是,全体股东约定不按照出资比例分取红利或者不按照出资比例优先认缴出资的除外。

    第三十五条 公司成立后,股东不得抽逃出资。

第二节 组 织 机 构

    第三十六条 有限责任公司股东会由全体股东组成。股东会是公司的权力机构,依照本法行使职权。

    第三十七条 股东会行使下列职权:

    (一)决定公司的经营方针和投资计划;

    (二)选举和更换非由职工代表担任的董事、监事,决定有关董事、监事的报酬事项;

    (三)审议批准董事会的报告;

    (四)审议批准监事会或者监事的报告;

    (五)审议批准公司的年度财务预算方案、决算方案;

    (六)审议批准公司的利润分配方案和弥补亏损方案;

    (七)对公司增加或者减少注册资本作出决议;

    (八)对发行公司债券作出决议;

    (九)对公司合并、分立、解散、清算或者变更公司形式作出决议;

    (十)修改公司章程;

    (十一)公司章程规定的其他职权。

    对前款所列事项股东以书面形式一致表示同意的,可以不召开股东会会议,直接作出决定,并由全体股东在决定文件上签名、盖章。

    第三十八条 首次股东会会议由出资最多的股东召集和主持,依照本法规定行使职权。

    第三十九条 股东会会议分为定期会议和临时会议。

    定期会议应当依照公司章程的规定按时召开。代表十分之一以上表决权的股东,三分之一以上的董事,监事会或者不设监事会的公司的监事提议召开临时会议的,应当召开临时会议。

    第四十条 有限责任公司设立董事会的,股东会会议由董事会召集,董事长主持;董事长不能履行职务或者不履行职务的,由副董事长主持;副董事长不能履行职务或者不履行职务的,由半数以上董事共同推举一名董事主持。

    有限责任公司不设董事会的,股东会会议由执行董事召集和主持。

    董事会或者执行董事不能履行或者不履行召集股东会会议职责的,由监事会或者不设监事会的公司的监事召集和主持;监事会或者监事不召集和主持的,代表十分之一以上表决权的股东可以自行召集和主持。

    第四十一条 召开股东会会议,应当于会议召开十五日前通知全体股东;但是,公司章程另有规定或者全体股东另有约定的除外。

    股东会应当对所议事项的决定作成会议记录,出席会议的股东应当在会议记录上签名。

    第四十二条 股东会会议由股东按照出资比例行使表决权;但是,公司章程另有规定的除外。

    第四十三条 股东会的议事方式和表决程序,除本法有规定的外,由公司章程规定。

    股东会会议作出修改公司章程、增加或者减少注册资本的决议,以及公司合并、分立、解散或者变更公司形式的决议,必须经代表三分之二以上表决权的股东通过。

    第四十四条 有限责任公司设董事会,其成员为三人至十三人;但是,本法第五十条另有规定的除外。

    两个以上的国有企业或者两个以上的其他国有投资主体投资设立的有限责任公司,其董事会成员中应当有公司职工代表;其他有限责任公司董事会成员中可以有公司职工代表。董事会中的职工代表由公司职工通过职工代表大会、职工大会或者其他形式民主选举产生。

    董事会设董事长一人,可以设副董事长。董事长、副董事长的产生办法由公司章程规定。

    第四十五条 董事任期由公司章程规定,但每届任期不得超过三年。董事任期届满,连选可以连任。

    董事任期届满未及时改选,或者董事在任期内辞职导致董事会成员低于法定人数的,在改选出的董事就任前,原董事仍应当依照法律、行政法规和公司章程的规定,履行董事职务。

    第四十六条 董事会对股东会负责,行使下列职权:

    (一)召集股东会会议,并向股东会报告工作;

    (二)执行股东会的决议;

    (三)决定公司的经营计划和投资方案;

    (四)制订公司的年度财务预算方案、决算方案;

    (五)制订公司的利润分配方案和弥补亏损方案;

    (六)制订公司增加或者减少注册资本以及发行公司债券的方案;

    (七)制订公司合并、分立、解散或者变更公司形式的方案;

    (八)决定公司内部管理机构的设置;

    (九)决定聘任或者解聘公司经理及其报酬事项,并根据经理的提名决定聘任或者解聘公司副经理、财务负责人及其报酬事项;

    (十)制定公司的基本管理制度;

    (十一)公司章程规定的其他职权。

    第四十七条 董事会会议由董事长召集和主持;董事长不能履行职务或者不履行职务的,由副董事长召集和主持;副董事长不能履行职务或者不履行职务的,由半数以上董事共同推举一名董事召集和主持。

    第四十八条 董事会的议事方式和表决程序,除本法有规定的外,由公司章程规定。

    董事会应当对所议事项的决定作成会议记录,出席会议的董事应当在会议记录上签名。

    董事会决议的表决,实行一人一票。

    第四十九条 有限责任公司可以设经理,由董事会决定聘任或者解聘。经理对董事会负责,行使下列职权:

    (一)主持公司的生产经营管理工作,组织实施董事会决议;

    (二)组织实施公司年度经营计划和投资方案;

    (三)拟订公司内部管理机构设置方案;

    (四)拟订公司的基本管理制度;

    (五)制定公司的具体规章;

    (六)提请聘任或者解聘公司副经理、财务负责人;

    (七)决定聘任或者解聘除应由董事会决定聘任或者解聘以外的负责管理人员;

    (八)董事会授予的其他职权。

    公司章程对经理职权另有规定的,从其规定。

    经理列席董事会会议。

    第五十条 股东人数较少或者规模较小的有限责任公司,可以设一名执行董事,不设董事会。执行董事可以兼任公司经理。

    执行董事的职权由公司章程规定。

    第五十一条 有限责任公司设监事会,其成员不得少于三人。股东人数较少或者规模较小的有限责任公司,可以设一至二名监事,不设监事会。

    监事会应当包括股东代表和适当比例的公司职工代表,其中职工代表的比例不得低于三分之一,具体比例由公司章程规定。监事会中的职工代表由公司职工通过职工代表大会、职工大会或者其他形式民主选举产生。

    监事会设主席一人,由全体监事过半数选举产生。监事会主席召集和主持监事会会议;监事会主席不能履行职务或者不履行职务的,由半数以上监事共同推举一名监事召集和主持监事会会议。

    董事、高级管理人员不得兼任监事。

    第五十二条 监事的任期每届为三年。监事任期届满,连选可以连任。

    监事任期届满未及时改选,或者监事在任期内辞职导致监事会成员低于法定人数的,在改选出的监事就任前,原监事仍应当依照法律、行政法规和公司章程的规定,履行监事职务。

    第五十三条 监事会、不设监事会的公司的监事行使下列职权:

    (一)检查公司财务;

    (二)对董事、高级管理人员执行公司职务的行为进行监督,对违反法律、行政法规、公司章程或者股东会决议的董事、高级管理人员提出罢免的建议;

    (三)当董事、高级管理人员的行为损害公司的利益时,要求董事、高级管理人员予以纠正;

    (四)提议召开临时股东会会议,在董事会不履行本法规定的召集和主持股东会会议职责时召集和主持股东会会议;

    (五)向股东会会议提出提案;

    (六)依照本法第一百五十一条的规定,对董事、高级管理人员提起诉讼;

    (七)公司章程规定的其他职权。

    第五十四条 监事可以列席董事会会议,并对董事会决议事项提出质询或者建议。

    监事会、不设监事会的公司的监事发现公司经营情况异常,可以进行调查;必要时,可以聘请会计师事务所等协助其工作,费用由公司承担。

    第五十五条 监事会每年度至少召开一次会议,监事可以提议召开临时监事会会议。

    监事会的议事方式和表决程序,除本法有规定的外,由公司章程规定。

    监事会决议应当经半数以上监事通过。

    监事会应当对所议事项的决定作成会议记录,出席会议的监事应当在会议记录上签名。

    第五十六条 监事会、不设监事会的公司的监事行使职权所必需的费用,由公司承担。

第三节 一人有限责任公司的特别规定

    第五十七条 一人有限责任公司的设立和组织机构,适用本节规定;本节没有规定的,适用本章第一节、第二节的规定。

    本法所称一人有限责任公司,是指只有一个自然人股东或者一个法人股东的有限责任公司。

    第五十八条 一个自然人只能投资设立一个一人有限责任公司。该一人有限责任公司不能投资设立新的一人有限责任公司。

    第五十九条 一人有限责任公司应当在公司登记中注明自然人独资或者法人独资,并在公司营业执照中载明。

    第六十条 一人有限责任公司章程由股东制定。

    第六十一条 一人有限责任公司不设股东会。股东作出本法第三十七条第一款所列决定时,应当采用书面形式,并由股东签名后置备于公司。

    第六十二条 一人有限责任公司应当在每一会计年度终了时编制财务会计报告,并经会计师事务所审计。

    第六十三条 一人有限责任公司的股东不能证明公司财产独立于股东自己的财产的,应当对公司债务承担连带责任。

第四节 国有独资公司的特别规定

    第六十四条 国有独资公司的设立和组织机构,适用本节规定;本节没有规定的,适用本章第一节、第二节的规定。

    本法所称国有独资公司,是指国家单独出资、由国务院或者地方人民政府授权本级人民政府国有资产监督管理机构履行出资人职责的有限责任公司。

    第六十五条 国有独资公司章程由国有资产监督管理机构制定,或者由董事会制订报国有资产监督管理机构批准。

    第六十六条 国有独资公司不设股东会,由国有资产监督管理机构行使股东会职权。国有资产监督管理机构可以授权公司董事会行使股东会的部分职权,决定公司的重大事项,但公司的合并、分立、解散、增加或者减少注册资本和发行公司债券,必须由国有资产监督管理机构决定;其中,重要的国有独资公司合并、分立、解散、申请破产的,应当由国有资产监督管理机构审核后,报本级人民政府批准。

    前款所称重要的国有独资公司,按照国务院的规定确定。

    第六十七条 国有独资公司设董事会,依照本法第四十六条、第六十六条的规定行使职权。董事每届任期不得超过三年。董事会成员中应当有公司职工代表。

    董事会成员由国有资产监督管理机构委派;但是,董事会成员中的职工代表由公司职工代表大会选举产生。

    董事会设董事长一人,可以设副董事长。董事长、副董事长由国有资产监督管理机构从董事会成员中指定。

    第六十八条 国有独资公司设经理,由董事会聘任或者解聘。经理依照本法第四十九条规定行使职权。

    经国有资产监督管理机构同意,董事会成员可以兼任经理。

    第六十九条 国有独资公司的董事长、副董事长、董事、高级管理人员,未经国有资产监督管理机构同意,不得在其他有限责任公司、股份有限公司或者其他经济组织兼职。

    第七十条 国有独资公司监事会成员不得少于五人,其中职工代表的比例不得低于三分之一,具体比例由公司章程规定。

    监事会成员由国有资产监督管理机构委派;但是,监事会成员中的职工代表由公司职工代表大会选举产生。监事会主席由国有资产监督管理机构从监事会成员中指定。

    监事会行使本法第五十三条第(一)项至第(三)项规定的职权和国务院规定的其他职权。

第三章 有限责任公司的股权转让

    第七十一条 有限责任公司的股东之间可以相互转让其全部或者部分股权。

    股东向股东以外的人转让股权,应当经其他股东过半数同意。股东应就其股权转让事项书面通知其他股东征求同意,其他股东自接到书面通知之日起满三十日未答复的,视为同意转让。其他股东半数以上不同意转让的,不同意的股东应当购买该转让的股权;不购买的,视为同意转让。

    经股东同意转让的股权,在同等条件下,其他股东有优先购买权。两个以上股东主张行使优先购买权的,协商确定各自的购买比例;协商不成的,按照转让时各自的出资比例行使优先购买权。

    公司章程对股权转让另有规定的,从其规定。

    第七十二条 人民法院依照法律规定的强制执行程序转让股东的股权时,应当通知公司及全体股东,其他股东在同等条件下有优先购买权。其他股东自人民法院通知之日起满二十日不行使优先购买权的,视为放弃优先购买权。

    第七十三条 依照本法第七十一条、第七十二条转让股权后,公司应当注销原股东的出资证明书,向新股东签发出资证明书,并相应修改公司章程和股东名册中有关股东及其出资额的记载。对公司章程的该项修改不需再由股东会表决。

    第七十四条 有下列情形之一的,对股东会该项决议投反对票的股东可以请求公司按照合理的价格收购其股权:

    (一)公司连续五年不向股东分配利润,而公司该五年连续盈利,并且符合本法规定的分配利润条件的;

    (二)公司合并、分立、转让主要财产的;

    (三)公司章程规定的营业期限届满或者章程规定的其他解散事由出现,股东会会议通过决议修改章程使公司存续的。

    自股东会会议决议通过之日起六十日内,股东与公司不能达成股权收购协议的,股东可以自股东会会议决议通过之日起九十日内向人民法院提起诉讼。

    第七十五条 自然人股东死亡后,其合法继承人可以继承股东资格;但是,公司章程另有规定的除外。

第四章 股份有限公司的设立和组织机构

第一节 设  立

  第七十六条 设立股份有限公司,应当具备下列条件:

    (一)发起人符合法定人数;

    (二)有符合公司章程规定的全体发起人认购的股本总额或者募集的实收股本总额;

    (三)股份发行、筹办事项符合法律规定;

    (四)发起人制订公司章程,采用募集方式设立的经创立大会通过;

    (五)有公司名称,建立符合股份有限公司要求的组织机构;

    (六)有公司住所。

    第七十七条 股份有限公司的设立,可以采取发起设立或者募集设立的方式。

    发起设立,是指由发起人认购公司应发行的全部股份而设立公司。

    募集设立,是指由发起人认购公司应发行股份的一部分,其余股份向社会公开募集或者向特定对象募集而设立公司。

    第七十八条 设立股份有限公司,应当有二人以上二百人以下为发起人,其中须有半数以上的发起人在中国境内有住所。

    第七十九条 股份有限公司发起人承担公司筹办事务。

    发起人应当签订发起人协议,明确各自在公司设立过程中的权利和义务。

    第八十条 股份有限公司采取发起设立方式设立的,注册资本为在公司登记机关登记的全体发起人认购的股本总额。在发起人认购的股份缴足前,不得向他人募集股份。

    股份有限公司采取募集方式设立的,注册资本为在公司登记机关登记的实收股本总额。

    法律、行政法规以及国务院决定对股份有限公司注册资本实缴、注册资本最低限额另有规定的,从其规定。

    第八十一条 股份有限公司章程应当载明下列事项:

    (一)公司名称和住所;

    (二)公司经营范围;

    (三)公司设立方式;

    (四)公司股份总数、每股金额和注册资本;

    (五)发起人的姓名或者名称、认购的股份数、出资方式和出资时间;

    (六)董事会的组成、职权和议事规则;

    (七)公司法定代表人;

    (八)监事会的组成、职权和议事规则;

    (九)公司利润分配办法;

    (十)公司的解散事由与清算办法;

    (十一)公司的通知和公告办法;

    (十二)股东大会会议认为需要规定的其他事项。

    第八十二条 发起人的出资方式,适用本法第二十七条的规定。

    第八十三条 以发起设立方式设立股份有限公司的,发起人应当书面认足公司章程规定其认购的股份,并按照公司章程规定缴纳出资。以非货币财产出资的,应当依法办理其财产权的转移手续。

    发起人不依照前款规定缴纳出资的,应当按照发起人协议承担违约责任。

    发起人认足公司章程规定的出资后,应当选举董事会和监事会,由董事会向公司登记机关报送公司章程以及法律、行政法规规定的其他文件,申请设立登记。

    第八十四条 以募集设立方式设立股份有限公司的,发起人认购的股份不得少于公司股份总数的百分之三十五;但是,法律、行政法规另有规定的,从其规定。

    第八十五条 发起人向社会公开募集股份,必须公告招股说明书,并制作认股书。认股书应当载明本法第八十六条所列事项,由认股人填写认购股数、金额、住所,并签名、盖章。认股人按照所认购股数缴纳股款。

    第八十六条 招股说明书应当附有发起人制订的公司章程,并载明下列事项:

    (一)发起人认购的股份数;

    (二)每股的票面金额和发行价格;

    (三)无记名股票的发行总数;

    (四)募集资金的用途;

    (五)认股人的权利、义务;

    (六)本次募股的起止期限及逾期未募足时认股人可以撤回所认股份的说明。

    第八十七条 发起人向社会公开募集股份,应当由依法设立的证券公司承销,签订承销协议。

    第八十八条 发起人向社会公开募集股份,应当同银行签订代收股款协议。

    代收股款的银行应当按照协议代收和保存股款,向缴纳股款的认股人出具收款单据,并负有向有关部门出具收款证明的义务。

    第八十九条 发行股份的股款缴足后,必须经依法设立的验资机构验资并出具证明。发起人应当自股款缴足之日起三十日内主持召开公司创立大会。创立大会由发起人、认股人组成。

    发行的股份超过招股说明书规定的截止期限尚未募足的,或者发行股份的股款缴足后,发起人在三十日内未召开创立大会的,认股人可以按照所缴股款并加算银行同期存款利息,要求发起人返还。

    第九十条 发起人应当在创立大会召开十五日前将会议日期通知各认股人或者予以公告。创立大会应有代表股份总数过半数的发起人、认股人出席,方可举行。

    创立大会行使下列职权:

    (一)审议发起人关于公司筹办情况的报告;

    (二)通过公司章程;

    (三)选举董事会成员;

    (四)选举监事会成员;

    (五)对公司的设立费用进行审核;

    (六)对发起人用于抵作股款的财产的作价进行审核;

    (七)发生不可抗力或者经营条件发生重大变化直接影响公司设立的,可以作出不设立公司的决议。

    创立大会对前款所列事项作出决议,必须经出席会议的认股人所持表决权过半数通过。

    第九十一条 发起人、认股人缴纳股款或者交付抵作股款的出资后,除未按期募足股份、发起人未按期召开创立大会或者创立大会决议不设立公司的情形外,不得抽回其股本。

    第九十二条 董事会应于创立大会结束后三十日内,向公司登记机关报送下列文件,申请设立登记:

    (一)公司登记申请书;

    (二)创立大会的会议记录;

    (三)公司章程;

    (四)验资证明;

    (五)法定代表人、董事、监事的任职文件及其身份证明;

    (六)发起人的法人资格证明或者自然人身份证明;

    (七)公司住所证明。

    以募集方式设立股份有限公司公开发行股票的,还应当向公司登记机关报送国务院证券监督管理机构的核准文件。

    第九十三条 股份有限公司成立后,发起人未按照公司章程的规定缴足出资的,应当补缴;其他发起人承担连带责任。

    股份有限公司成立后,发现作为设立公司出资的非货币财产的实际价额显著低于公司章程所定价额的,应当由交付该出资的发起人补足其差额;其他发起人承担连带责任。

    第九十四条 股份有限公司的发起人应当承担下列责任:

    (一)公司不能成立时,对设立行为所产生的债务和费用负连带责任;

    (二)公司不能成立时,对认股人已缴纳的股款,负返还股款并加算银行同期存款利息的连带责任;

    (三)在公司设立过程中,由于发起人的过失致使公司利益受到损害的,应当对公司承担赔偿责任。

    第九十五条 有限责任公司变更为股份有限公司时,折合的实收股本总额不得高于公司净资产额。有限责任公司变更为股份有限公司,为增加资本公开发行股份时,应当依法办理。

    第九十六条 股份有限公司应当将公司章程、股东名册、公司债券存根、股东大会会议记录、董事会会议记录、监事会会议记录、财务会计报告置备于本公司。

    第九十七条 股东有权查阅公司章程、股东名册、公司债券存根、股东大会会议记录、董事会会议决议、监事会会议决议、财务会计报告,对公司的经营提出建议或者质询。

第二节 股 东 大 会

    第九十八条 股份有限公司股东大会由全体股东组成。股东大会是公司的权力机构,依照本法行使职权。

    第九十九条 本法第三十七条第一款关于有限责任公司股东会职权的规定,适用于股份有限公司股东大会。

    第一百条 股东大会应当每年召开一次年会。有下列情形之一的,应当在两个月内召开临时股东大会:

    (一)董事人数不足本法规定人数或者公司章程所定人数的三分之二时;

    (二)公司未弥补的亏损达实收股本总额三分之一时;

    (三)单独或者合计持有公司百分之十以上股份的股东请求时;

    (四)董事会认为必要时;

    (五)监事会提议召开时;

    (六)公司章程规定的其他情形。

    第一百零一条 股东大会会议由董事会召集,董事长主持;董事长不能履行职务或者不履行职务的,由副董事长主持;副董事长不能履行职务或者不履行职务的,由半数以上董事共同推举一名董事主持。

    董事会不能履行或者不履行召集股东大会会议职责的,监事会应当及时召集和主持;监事会不召集和主持的,连续九十日以上单独或者合计持有公司百分之十以上股份的股东可以自行召集和主持。

    第一百零二条 召开股东大会会议,应当将会议召开的时间、地点和审议的事项于会议召开二十日前通知各股东;临时股东大会应当于会议召开十五日前通知各股东;发行无记名股票的,应当于会议召开三十日前公告会议召开的时间、地点和审议事项。

    单独或者合计持有公司百分之三以上股份的股东,可以在股东大会召开十日前提出临时提案并书面提交董事会;董事会应当在收到提案后二日内通知其他股东,并将该临时提案提交股东大会审议。临时提案的内容应当属于股东大会职权范围,并有明确议题和具体决议事项。

    股东大会不得对前两款通知中未列明的事项作出决议。

    无记名股票持有人出席股东大会会议的,应当于会议召开五日前至股东大会闭会时将股票交存于公司。

    第一百零三条 股东出席股东大会会议,所持每一股份有一表决权。但是,公司持有的本公司股份没有表决权。

    股东大会作出决议,必须经出席会议的股东所持表决权过半数通过。但是,股东大会作出修改公司章程、增加或者减少注册资本的决议,以及公司合并、分立、解散或者变更公司形式的决议,必须经出席会议的股东所持表决权的三分之二以上通过。

    第一百零四条 本法和公司章程规定公司转让、受让重大资产或者对外提供担保等事项必须经股东大会作出决议的,董事会应当及时召集股东大会会议,由股东大会就上述事项进行表决。

    第一百零五条 股东大会选举董事、监事,可以依照公司章程的规定或者股东大会的决议,实行累积投票制。

    本法所称累积投票制,是指股东大会选举董事或者监事时,每一股份拥有与应选董事或者监事人数相同的表决权,股东拥有的表决权可以集中使用。

    第一百零六条 股东可以委托代理人出席股东大会会议,代理人应当向公司提交股东授权委托书,并在授权范围内行使表决权。

    第一百零七条 股东大会应当对所议事项的决定作成会议记录,主持人、出席会议的董事应当在会议记录上签名。会议记录应当与出席股东的签名册及代理出席的委托书一并保存。

第三节 董事会、经理

    第一百零八条 股份有限公司设董事会,其成员为五人至十九人。

    董事会成员中可以有公司职工代表。董事会中的职工代表由公司职工通过职工代表大会、职工大会或者其他形式民主选举产生。

    本法第四十五条关于有限责任公司董事任期的规定,适用于股份有限公司董事。

    本法第四十六条关于有限责任公司董事会职权的规定,适用于股份有限公司董事会。

    第一百零九条 董事会设董事长一人,可以设副董事长。董事长和副董事长由董事会以全体董事的过半数选举产生。

    董事长召集和主持董事会会议,检查董事会决议的实施情况。副董事长协助董事长工作,董事长不能履行职务或者不履行职务的,由副董事长履行职务;副董事长不能履行职务或者不履行职务的,由半数以上董事共同推举一名董事履行职务。

    第一百一十条 董事会每年度至少召开两次会议,每次会议应当于会议召开十日前通知全体董事和监事。

    代表十分之一以上表决权的股东、三分之一以上董事或者监事会,可以提议召开董事会临时会议。董事长应当自接到提议后十日内,召集和主持董事会会议。

    董事会召开临时会议,可以另定召集董事会的通知方式和通知时限。

    第一百一十一条 董事会会议应有过半数的董事出席方可举行。董事会作出决议,必须经全体董事的过半数通过。

    董事会决议的表决,实行一人一票。

    第一百一十二条 董事会会议,应由董事本人出席;董事因故不能出席,可以书面委托其他董事代为出席,委托书中应载明授权范围。

    董事会应当对会议所议事项的决定作成会议记录,出席会议的董事应当在会议记录上签名。

    董事应当对董事会的决议承担责任。董事会的决议违反法律、行政法规或者公司章程、股东大会决议,致使公司遭受严重损失的,参与决议的董事对公司负赔偿责任。但经证明在表决时曾表明异议并记载于会议记录的,该董事可以免除责任。

    第一百一十三条 股份有限公司设经理,由董事会决定聘任或者解聘。

    本法第四十九条关于有限责任公司经理职权的规定,适用于股份有限公司经理。

    第一百一十四条 公司董事会可以决定由董事会成员兼任经理。

    第一百一十五条 公司不得直接或者通过子公司向董事、监事、高级管理人员提供借款。

    第一百一十六条 公司应当定期向股东披露董事、监事、高级管理人员从公司获得报酬的情况。

第四节 监 事 会

    第一百一十七条 股份有限公司设监事会,其成员不得少于三人。

    监事会应当包括股东代表和适当比例的公司职工代表,其中职工代表的比例不得低于三分之一,具体比例由公司章程规定。监事会中的职工代表由公司职工通过职工代表大会、职工大会或者其他形式民主选举产生。

    监事会设主席一人,可以设副主席。监事会主席和副主席由全体监事过半数选举产生。监事会主席召集和主持监事会会议;监事会主席不能履行职务或者不履行职务的,由监事会副主席召集和主持监事会会议;监事会副主席不能履行职务或者不履行职务的,由半数以上监事共同推举一名监事召集和主持监事会会议。

    董事、高级管理人员不得兼任监事。

    本法第五十二条关于有限责任公司监事任期的规定,适用于股份有限公司监事。

    第一百一十八条 本法第五十三条、第五十四条关于有限责任公司监事会职权的规定,适用于股份有限公司监事会。

    监事会行使职权所必需的费用,由公司承担。

    第一百一十九条 监事会每六个月至少召开一次会议。监事可以提议召开临时监事会会议。

    监事会的议事方式和表决程序,除本法有规定的外,由公司章程规定。

    监事会决议应当经半数以上监事通过。

    监事会应当对所议事项的决定作成会议记录,出席会议的监事应当在会议记录上签名。

    第五节上市公司组织机构的特别规定

    第一百二十条 本法所称上市公司,是指其股票在证券交易所上市交易的股份有限公司。

    第一百二十一条 上市公司在一年内购买、出售重大资产或者担保金额超过公司资产总额百分之三十的,应当由股东大会作出决议,并经出席会议的股东所持表决权的三分之二以上通过。

    第一百二十二条 上市公司设独立董事,具体办法由国务院规定。

    第一百二十三条 上市公司设董事会秘书,负责公司股东大会和董事会会议的筹备、文件保管以及公司股东资料的管理,办理信息披露事务等事宜。

    第一百二十四条 上市公司董事与董事会会议决议事项所涉及的企业有关联关系的,不得对该项决议行使表决权,也不得代理其他董事行使表决权。该董事会会议由过半数的无关联关系董事出席即可举行,董事会会议所作决议须经无关联关系董事过半数通过。出席董事会的无关联关系董事人数不足三人的,应将该事项提交上市公司股东大会审议。

第五章 股份有限公司的股份发行和转让

第一节 股 份 发 行

  第一百二十五条 股份有限公司的资本划分为股份,每一股的金额相等。

    公司的股份采取股票的形式。股票是公司签发的证明股东所持股份的凭证。

    第一百二十六条 股份的发行,实行公平、公正的原则,同种类的每一股份应当具有同等权利。

    同次发行的同种类股票,每股的发行条件和价格应当相同;任何单位或者个人所认购的股份,每股应当支付相同价额。

    第一百二十七条 股票发行价格可以按票面金额,也可以超过票面金额,但不得低于票面金额。

    第一百二十八条 股票采用纸面形式或者国务院证券监督管理机构规定的其他形式。

    股票应当载明下列主要事项:

    (一)公司名称;

    (二)公司成立日期;

    (三)股票种类、票面金额及代表的股份数;

    (四)股票的编号。

    股票由法定代表人签名,公司盖章。

    发起人的股票,应当标明发起人股票字样。

    第一百二十九条 公司发行的股票,可以为记名股票,也可以为无记名股票。

    公司向发起人、法人发行的股票,应当为记名股票,并应当记载该发起人、法人的名称或者姓名,不得另立户名或者以代表人姓名记名。

    第一百三十条 公司发行记名股票的,应当置备股东名册,记载下列事项:

    (一)股东的姓名或者名称及住所;

    (二)各股东所持股份数;

    (三)各股东所持股票的编号;

    (四)各股东取得股份的日期。

    发行无记名股票的,公司应当记载其股票数量、编号及发行日期。

    第一百三十一条 国务院可以对公司发行本法规定以外的其他种类的股份,另行作出规定。

    第一百三十二条 股份有限公司成立后,即向股东正式交付股票。公司成立前不得向股东交付股票。

    第一百三十三条 公司发行新股,股东大会应当对下列事项作出决议:

    (一)新股种类及数额;

    (二)新股发行价格;

    (三)新股发行的起止日期;

    (四)向原有股东发行新股的种类及数额。

    第一百三十四条 公司经国务院证券监督管理机构核准公开发行新股时,必须公告新股招股说明书和财务会计报告,并制作认股书。

    本法第八十七条、第八十八条的规定适用于公司公开发行新股。

 &nb]]> Civil Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China (2017 Revision) Tue, 28 Jan 2020 22:02:26 +0800 Civil Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China (2017 Revision)



中华人民共和国民事诉讼法(2017修正)
发布:2017-06-27实施:2017-07-01现行有效
法律修订

1991年4月9日第七届全国人民代表大会第四次会议通过

根据2007年10月28日第十届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第三十次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国民事诉讼法〉的决定》第一次修正

根据2012年8月31日第十一届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第二十八次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国民事诉讼法〉的决定》第二次修正

根据2017年6月27日第十二届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第二十八次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国民事诉讼法〉和〈中华人民共和国行政诉讼法〉的决定》第三次修正

正文
第一编 总  则
第一章 任务、适用范围和基本原则
第一条 立法依据
中华人民共和国民事诉讼法以宪法为根据,结合我国民事审判工作的经验和实际情况制定。
第二条 立法目的
中华人民共和国民事诉讼法的任务,是保护当事人行使诉讼权利,保证人民法院查明事实,分清是非,正确适用法律,及时审理民事案件,确认民事权利义务关系,制裁民事违法行为,保护当事人的合法权益,教育公民自觉遵守法律,维护社会秩序、经济秩序,保障社会主义建设事业顺利进行。
第三条 适用范围
人民法院受理公民之间、法人之间、其他组织之间以及他们相互之间因财产关系和人身关系提起的民事诉讼,适用本法的规定。
第四条 空间效力
凡在中华人民共和国领域内进行民事诉讼,必须遵守本法。
第五条 同等原则和对等原则
外国人、无国籍人、外国企业和组织在人民法院起诉、应诉,同中华人民共和国公民、法人和其他组织有同等的诉讼权利义务。 外国法院对中华人民共和国公民、法人和其他组织的民事诉讼权利加以限制的,中华人民共和国人民法院对该国公民、企业和组织的民事诉讼权利,实行对等原则。
第六条 法院独立审判原则
民事案件的审判权由人民法院行使。 人民法院依照法律规定对民事案件独立进行审判,不受行政机关、社会团体和个人的干涉。
第七条 法院审判原则
人民法院审理民事案件,必须以事实为根据,以法律为准绳。
第八条 当事人平等原则
民事诉讼当事人有平等的诉讼权利。人民法院审理民事案件,应当保障和便利当事人行使诉讼权利,对当事人在适用法律上一律平等。
第九条 法院调解原则
人民法院审理民事案件,应当根据自愿和合法的原则进行调解;调解不成的,应当及时判决。
第十条 审判基本制度
人民法院审理民事案件,依照法律规定实行合议、回避、公开审判和两审终审制度。
第十一条 使用母语进行诉讼
各民族公民都有用本民族语言、文字进行民事诉讼的权利。 在少数民族聚居或者多民族共同居住的地区,人民法院应当用当地民族通用的语言、文字进行审理和发布法律文书。 人民法院应当对不通晓当地民族通用的语言、文字的诉讼参与人提供翻译。
第十二条 辩论原则
人民法院审理民事案件时,当事人有权进行辩论。
第十三条 诚信原则和处分原则
民事诉讼应当遵循诚实信用原则。
第十四条 检察监督原则
人民检察院有权对民事诉讼实行法律监督。
第十五条 支持起诉
机关、社会团体、企业事业单位对损害国家、集体或者个人民事权益的行为,可以支持受损害的单位或者个人向人民法院起诉。
第十六条 变通规定
民族自治地方的人民代表大会根据宪法和本法的原则,结合当地民族的具体情况,可以制定变通或者补充的规定。自治区的规定,报全国人民代表大会常务委员会批准。自治州、自治县的规定,报省或者自治区的人民代表大会常务委员会批准,并报全国人民代表大会常务委员会备案。
第二章 管  辖
第十七条 基层法院管辖
基层人民法院管辖第一审民事案件,但本法另有规定的除外。
第十八条 中级法院管辖
中级人民法院管辖下列第一审民事案件: (一)重大涉外案件; (二)在本辖区有重大影响的案件; (三)最高人民法院确定由中级人民法院管辖的案件。
第十九条 高级法院管辖
高级人民法院管辖在本辖区有重大影响的第一审民事案件。
第二十条 最高法院管辖
最高人民法院管辖下列第一审民事案件: (一)在全国有重大影响的案件; (二)认为应当由本院审理的案件。
第二十一条 一般地域管辖
对公民提起的民事诉讼,由被告住所地人民法院管辖;被告住所地与经常居住地不一致的,由经常居住地人民法院管辖。 对法人或者其他组织提起的民事诉讼,由被告住所地人民法院管辖。 同一诉讼的几个被告住所地、经常居住地在两个以上人民法院辖区的,各该人民法院都有管辖权。
第二十二条 特别规定
下列民事诉讼,由原告住所地人民法院管辖;原告住所地与经常居住地不一致的,由原告经常居住地人民法院管辖: (一)对不在中华人民共和国领域内居住的人提起的有关身份关系的诉讼; (二)对下落不明或者宣告失踪的人提起的有关身份关系的诉讼; (三)对被采取强制性教育措施的人提起的诉讼; (四)对被监禁的人提起的诉讼。
第二十三条 合同纠纷管辖
因合同纠纷提起的诉讼,由被告住所地或者合同履行地人民法院管辖。
第二十四条 保险合同纠纷管辖
因保险合同纠纷提起的诉讼,由被告住所地或者保险标的物所在地人民法院管辖。
第二十五条 票据纠纷管辖
因票据纠纷提起的诉讼,由票据支付地或者被告住所地人民法院管辖。
第二十六条 公司纠纷管辖
因公司设立、确认股东资格、分配利润、解散等纠纷提起的诉讼,由公司住所地人民法院管辖。
第二十七条 运输合同纠纷管辖
因铁路、公路、水上、航空运输和联合运输合同纠纷提起的诉讼,由运输始发地、目的地或者被告住所地人民法院管辖。
第二十八条 侵权诉讼管辖
因侵权行为提起的诉讼,由侵权行为地或者被告住所地人民法院管辖。
第二十九条 交通事故管辖
因铁路、公路、水上和航空事故请求损害赔偿提起的诉讼,由事故发生地或者车辆、船舶最先到达地、航空器最先降落地或者被告住所地人民法院管辖。
第三十条 海损事故管辖
因船舶碰撞或者其他海事损害事故请求损害赔偿提起的诉讼,由碰撞发生地、碰撞船舶最先到达地、加害船舶被扣留地或者被告住所地人民法院管辖。
第三十一条 海难救助管辖
因海难救助费用提起的诉讼,由救助地或者被救助船舶最先到达地人民法院管辖。
第三十二条 共同海损管辖
因共同海损提起的诉讼,由船舶最先到达地、共同海损理算地或者航程终止地的人民法院管辖。
第三十三条 专属管辖
下列案件,由本条规定的人民法院专属管辖: (一)因不动产纠纷提起的诉讼,由不动产所在地人民法院管辖; (二)因港口作业中发生纠纷提起的诉讼,由港口所在地人民法院管辖; (三)因继承遗产纠纷提起的诉讼,由被继承人死亡时住所地或者主要遗产所在地人民法院管辖。
第三十四条 协议管辖
合同或者其他财产权益纠纷的当事人可以书面协议选择被告住所地、合同履行地、合同签订地、原告住所地、标的物所在地等与争议有实际联系的地点的人民法院管辖,但不得违反本法对级别管辖和专属管辖的规定。
第三十五条 共同管辖
两个以上人民法院都有管辖权的诉讼,原告可以向其中一个人民法院起诉;原告向两个以上有管辖权的人民法院起诉的,由最先立案的人民法院管辖。
第三十六条 移送管辖
人民法院发现受理的案件不属于本院管辖的,应当移送有管辖权的人民法院,受移送的人民法院应当受理。受移送的人民法院认为受移送的案件依照规定不属于本院管辖的,应当报请上级人民法院指定管辖,不得再自行移送。
第三十七条 指定管辖
有管辖权的人民法院由于特殊原因,不能行使管辖权的,由上级人民法院指定管辖。 人民法院之间因管辖权发生争议,由争议双方协商解决;协商解决不了的,报请它们的共同上级人民法院指定管辖。
第三十八条 管辖权转移
上级人民法院有权审理下级人民法院管辖的第一审民事案件;确有必要将本院管辖的第一审民事案件交下级人民法院审理的,应当报请其上级人民法院批准。 下级人民法院对它所管辖的第一审民事案件,认为需要由上级人民法院审理的,可以报请上级人民法院审理。
第三章 审判组织
第三十九条 一审审判组织
人民法院审理第一审民事案件,由审判员、陪审员共同组成合议庭或者由审判员组成合议庭。合议庭的成员人数,必须是单数。 适用简易程序审理的民事案件,由审判员一人独任审理。 陪审员在执行陪审职务时,与审判员有同等的权利义务。
第四十条 二、重、再审审判组织
人民法院审理第二审民事案件,由审判员组成合议庭。合议庭的成员人数,必须是单数。 发回重审的案件,原审人民法院应当按照第一审程序另行组成合议庭。 审理再审案件,原来是第一审的,按照第一审程序另行组成合议庭;原来是第二审的或者是上级人民法院提审的,按照第二审程序另行组成合议庭。
第四十一条 审判长
合议庭的审判长由院长或者庭长指定审判员一人担任;院长或者庭长参加审判的,由院长或者庭长担任。
第四十二条 评议原则
合议庭评议案件,实行少数服从多数的原则。评议应当制作笔录,由合议庭成员签名。评议中的不同意见,必须如实记入笔录。
第四十三条 审判人员职责
审判人员应当依法秉公办案。 审判人员不得接受当事人及其诉讼代理人请客送礼。 审判人员有贪污受贿,徇私舞弊,枉法裁判行为的,应当追究法律责任;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。
第四章 回  避
第四十四条 回避理由
审判人员有下列情形之一的,应当自行回避,当事人有权用口头或者书面方式申请他们回避: (一)是本案当事人或者当事人、诉讼代理人近亲属的; (二)与本案有利害关系的; (三)与本案当事人、诉讼代理人有其他关系,可能影响对案件公正审理的。 审判人员接受当事人、诉讼代理人请客送礼,或者违反规定会见当事人、诉讼代理人的,当事人有权要求他们回避。 审判人员有前款规定的行为的,应当依法追究法律责任。 前三款规定,适用于书记员、翻译人员、鉴定人、勘验人。
第四十五条 回避申请
当事人提出回避申请,应当说明理由,在案件开始审理时提出;回避事由在案件开始审理后知道的,也可以在法庭辩论终结前提出。 被申请回避的人员在人民法院作出是否回避的决定前,应当暂停参与本案的工作,但案件需要采取紧急措施的除外。
第四十六条 回避决定
院长担任审判长时的回避,由审判委员会决定;审判人员的回避,由院长决定;其他人员的回避,由审判长决定。
第四十七条 回避后果和复议
人民法院对当事人提出的回避申请,应当在申请提出的三日内,以口头或者书面形式作出决定。申请人对决定不服的,可以在接到决定时申请复议一次。复议期间,被申请回避的人员,不停止参与本案的工作。人民法院对复议申请,应当在三日内作出复议决定,并通知复议申请人。
第五章 诉讼参加人
第四十八条 当事人诉讼权利能力
公民、法人和其他组织可以作为民事诉讼的当事人。 法人由其法定代表人进行诉讼。其他组织由其主要负责人进行诉讼。
第四十九条 诉讼权利义务
当事人有权委托代理人,提出回避申请,收集、提供证据,进行辩论,请求调解,提起上诉,申请执行。 当事人可以查阅本案有关材料,并可以复制本案有关材料和法律文书。查阅、复制本案有关材料的范围和办法由最高人民法院规定。 当事人必须依法行使诉讼权利,遵守诉讼秩序,履行发生法律效力的判决书、裁定书和调解书。
第五十条 诉讼和解
双方当事人可以自行和解。
第五十一条 诉讼请求处分和反诉
原告可以放弃或者变更诉讼请求。被告可以承认或者反驳诉讼请求,有权提起反诉。
第五十二条 共同诉讼
当事人一方或者双方为二人以上,其诉讼标的是共同的,或者诉讼标的是同一种类、人民法院认为可以合并审理并经当事人同意的,为共同诉讼。 共同诉讼的一方当事人对诉讼标的有共同权利义务的,其中一人的诉讼行为经其他共同诉讼人承认,对其他共同诉讼人发生效力;对诉讼标的没有共同权利义务的,其中一人的诉讼行为对其他共同诉讼人不发生效力。
第五十三条 代表人诉讼一
当事人一方人数众多的共同诉讼,可以由当事人推选代表人进行诉讼。代表人的诉讼行为对其所代表的当事人发生效力,但代表人变更、放弃诉讼请求或者承认对方当事人的诉讼请求,进行和解,必须经被代表的当事人同意。
第五十四条 代表人诉讼二
诉讼标的是同一种类、当事人一方人数众多在起诉时人数尚未确定的,人民法院可以发出公告,说明案件情况和诉讼请求,通知权利人在一定期间向人民法院登记。 向人民法院登记的权利人可以推选代表人进行诉讼;推选不出代表人的,人民法院可以与参加登记的权利人商定代表人。 代表人的诉讼行为对其所代表的当事人发生效力,但代表人变更、放弃诉讼请求或者承认对方当事人的诉讼请求,进行和解,必须经被代表的当事人同意。 人民法院作出的判决、裁定,对参加登记的全体权利人发生效力。未参加登记的权利人在诉讼时效期间提起诉讼的,适用该判决、裁定。
第五十五条 公益诉讼
对污染环境、侵害众多消费者合法权益等损害社会公共利益的行为,法律规定的机关和有关组织可以向人民法院提起诉讼。 人民检察院在履行职责中发现破坏生态环境和资源保护、食品药品安全领域侵害众多消费者合法权益等损害社会公共利益的行为,在没有前款规定的机关和组织或者前款规定的机关和组织不提起诉讼的情况下,可以向人民法院提起诉讼。前款规定的机关或者组织提起诉讼的,人民检察院可以支持起诉。
第五十六条 诉讼第三人和第三人异议之诉
对当事人双方的诉讼标的,第三人认为有独立请求权的,有权提起诉讼。 对当事人双方的诉讼标的,第三人虽然没有独立请求权,但案件处理结果同他有法律上的利害关系的,可以申请参加诉讼,或者由人民法院通知他参加诉讼。人民法院判决承担民事责任的第三人,有当事人的诉讼权利义务。 前两款规定的第三人,因不能归责于本人的事由未参加诉讼,但有证据证明发生法律效力的判决、裁定、调解书的部分或者全部内容错误,损害其民事权益的,可以自知道或者应当知道其民事权益受到损害之日起六个月内,向作出该判决、裁定、调解书的人民法院提起诉讼。人民法院经审理,诉讼请求成立的,应当改变或者撤销原判决、裁定、调解书;诉讼请求不成立的,驳回诉讼请求。
第五十七条 法定代理人
无诉讼行为能力人由他的监护人作为法定代理人代为诉讼。法定代理人之间互相推诿代理责任的,由人民法院指定其中一人代为诉讼。
第五十八条 委托代理人
当事人、法定代理人可以委托一至二人作为诉讼代理人。 下列人员可以被委托为诉讼代理人: (一)律师、基层法律服务工作者; (二)当事人的近亲属或者工作人员; (三)当事人所在社区、单位以及有关社会团体推荐的公民。
第五十九条 授权委托书
委托他人代为诉讼,必须向人民法院提交由委托人签名或者盖章的授权委托书。 授权委托书必须记明委托事项和权限。诉讼代理人代为承认、放弃、变更诉讼请求,进行和解,提起反诉或者上诉,必须有委托人的特别授权。 侨居在国外的中华人民共和国公民从国外寄交或者托交的授权委托书,必须经中华人民共和国驻该国的使领馆证明;没有使领馆的,由与中华人民共和国有外交关系的第三国驻该国的使领馆证明,再转由中华人民共和国驻该第三国使领馆证明,或者由当地的爱国华侨团体证明。
第六十条 代理权变更和解除
诉讼代理人的权限如果变更或者解除,当事人应当书面告知人民法院,并由人民法院通知对方当事人。
第六十一条 代理人权利
代理诉讼的律师和其他诉讼代理人有权调查收集证据,可以查阅本案有关材料。查阅本案有关材料的范围和办法由最高人民法院规定。
第六十二条 离婚诉讼代理
离婚案件有诉讼代理人的,本人除不能表达意思的以外,仍应出庭;确因特殊情况无法出庭的,必须向人民法院提交书面意见。
第六章 证  据
第六十三条 证据种类
证据包括: (一)当事人的陈述; (二)书证; (三)物证; (四)视听资料; (五)电子数据; (六)证人证言; (七)鉴定意见; (八)勘验笔录。 证据必须查证属实,才能作为认定事实的根据。
第六十四条 证明责任和职权探知
当事人对自己提出的主张,有责任提供证据。 当事人及其诉讼代理人因客观原因不能自行收集的证据,或者人民法院认为审理案件需要的证据,人民法院应当调查收集。 人民法院应当按照法定程序,全面地、客观地审查核实证据。
第六十五条 举证期限
当事人对自己提出的主张应当及时提供证据。 人民法院根据当事人的主张和案件审理情况,确定当事人应当提供的证据及其期限。当事人在该期限内提供证据确有困难的,可以向人民法院申请延长期限,人民法院根据当事人的申请适当延长。当事人逾期提供证据的,人民法院应当责令其说明理由;拒不说明理由或者理由不成立的,人民法院根据不同情形可以不予采纳该证据,或者采纳该证据但予以训诫、罚款。
第六十六条 收到证据后处理程序
人民法院收到当事人提交的证据材料,应当出具收据,写明证据名称、页数、份数、原件或者复印件以及收到时间等,并由经办人员签名或者盖章。
第六十七条 法院调取证据
人民法院有权向有关单位和个人调查取证,有关单位和个人不得拒绝。 人民法院对有关单位和个人提出的证明文书,应当辨别真伪,审查确定其效力。
第六十八条 当事人质证
证据应当在法庭上出示,并由当事人互相质证。对涉及国家秘密、商业秘密和个人隐私的证据应当保密,需要在法庭出示的,不得在公开开庭时出示。
第六十九条 公证事实
经过法定程序公证证明的法律事实和文书,人民法院应当作为认定事实的根据,但有相反证据足以推翻公证证明的除外。
第七十条 最佳证据规则 Contract Law of the People's Republic of China Tue, 28 Jan 2020 22:02:26 +0800

Contract Law of the People's Republic of China

Order[1999] No.15 of the President of the People's Republic of China

Contract Law of the People's Republic of China has been adopted at the Second Session of the Ninth National People's Congress on March 15, 1999, and is hereby promulgated, it will come into force as of October 1, 1999.
President of the People's Republic of China: Jiang Zemin
March 15, 1999
Contract Law of the People's Republic of China

 

中华人民共和国主席令
(第十五号)


《中华人民共和国合同法》已由中华人民共和国第九届全国人民代表大会第二次会议于1999年3月15日通过,现予公布,自1999年10月1日起施行。
中华人民共和国主席 江泽民
1999年3月15日
中华人民共和国合同法
(1999年3月15日第九届全国人民代表大会第二次会议通过)
总则


  第一章 一般规定

  第二章 合同的订立

  第三章 合同的效力

  第四章 合同的履行

  第五章 合同的变更和转让

  第六章 合同的权利义务终止

  第七章 违约责任

  第八章 其他规定
分则

  第九章 买卖合同

  第十章 供用电、水、气、热力合同

  第十一章 赠与合同

  第十二章 借款合同

  第十三章 租赁合同

  第十四章 融资租赁合同

  第十五章 承揽合同

  第十六章 建设工程合同

  第十七章 运输合同

  第十八章 技术合同

  第十九章 保管合同

  第二十章 仓储合同

  第二十一章 委托合同

  第二十二章 行纪合同

  第二十三章 居间合同
附则
General Provisions
 

总则


Chapter 1 General Rules
 

第一章 一般规定

Article 1 This Law is enacted in order to protect the lawful rights and interests of the contracting parties, to maintain social and economic order, and to promote the process of socialist modernization.
    第一条 【立法目的】为了保护合同当事人的合法权益,维护社会经济秩序,促进社会主义现代化建设,制定本法。
Article 2 A contract in this Law refers to an agreement among natural persons, legal persons or other organizations as equal parties for the establishment, modification, termination of a relationship involving the civil rights and obligations of such entities. Agreements concerning personal relationships such as marriage,adoption, guardianship, etc.shall be governed by the provisions in other laws.
    第二条 【合同定义】本法所称合同是平等主体的自然人、法人、其他组织之间设立、变更、终止民事权利义务关系的协议。婚姻、收养、监护等有关身份关系的协议,适用其他法律的规定。
Article 3 Contracting parties shall have equal legal status, and no party may impose its will on the other party.
    第三条 【平等原则】合同当事人的法律地位平等,一方不得将自己的意志强加给另一方。
Article 4 The parties have the right to lawfully enter into a contract of their own free will in accordance with the law, and no unit or individual may illegally interfere therewith.
    第四条 【合同自由原则】当事人依法享有自愿订立合同的权利,任何单位和个人不得非法干预。
Article 5 The parties shall adhere to the principle of fairness in deciding their respective rights and obligations.
    第五条 【公平原则】当事人应当遵循公平原则确定各方的权利和义务。
Article 6 The parties shall observe the principle of honesty and good faith in exercising their rights and performing their obligations.
    第六条 【诚实信用原则】当事人行使权利、履行义务应当遵循诚实信用原则。
Article 7 In concluding and performing a contract, the parties shall comply with the laws and administrative regulations, respect social ethics, and shall not disrupt the social and economic order or impair the public interests.
    第七条 【遵纪守法原则】当事人订立、履行合同,应当遵守法律、行政法规,尊重社会公德,不得扰乱社会经济秩序,损害社会公共利益。
Article 8 A lawfully established contract shall be legally binding on the parties thereto, each of whom shall perform its own obligations in accordance with the terms of the contract, and no party shall unilaterally modify or terminate the contract.The contract established according to law is protected by law.
    第八条 【依合同履行义务原则】依法成立的合同,对当事人具有法律约束力。当事人应当按照约定履行自己的义务,不得擅自变更或者解除合同。
依法成立的合同,受法律保护。
Chapter 2 Conclusion of Contracts
 

第二章 合同的订立

Article 9 In entering into a contract, the parties shall have appropriate capacities for civil rights and civil acts.A party may appoint an agent to enter into a contract on its behalf in accordance with the law.
    第九条 【订立合同的能力】当事人订立合同,应当具有相应的民事权利能力和民事行为能力。当事人依法可以委托代理人订立合同。
Article 10 The parties may use written, oral or other forms in entering into a contract.
A contract shall be in written form if the laws or administrative regulations so provide. A contract shall be concluded in written form if the parties so agree.
    第十条 【合同的形式】当事人订立合同,有书面形式、口头形式和其他形式。
法律、行政法规规定采用书面形式的,应当采用书面形式。当事人约定采用书面形式的,应当采用书面形式。
Article 11 "Written form" refers to a form such as a written contractual agreement, letter, electronic data text(including a telegram, telex, fax, electronic data exchange and e-mail)that can tangibly express the contents contained therein.
    第十一条 【书面形式】书面形式是指合同书、信件和数据电文(包括电报、电传、传真、电子数据交换和电子邮件)等可以有形地表现所载内容的形式。
Article 12 The contents of a contract shall be agreed upon by the parties, and shall generally contain the following clauses:
    第十二条 【合同内容】合同的内容由当事人约定,一般包括以下条款:
(1) titles or names and domiciles of the parties;
  (一)当事人的名称或者姓名和住所;
(2) subject matter;
  (二)标的;
(3) quantity;
  (三)数量;
(4) quality;
  (四)质量;
(5) price or remuneration;
  (五)价款或者报酬;
(6) time limit, place and method of performance;
  (六)履行期限、地点和方式;
(7) liability for breach of contract; and
  (七)违约责任;
(8) method to settle disputes.The parties may conclude a contract by reference to a model text of each kind of contract.
  (八)解决争议的方法。
当事人可以参照各类合同的示范文本订立合同。
Article 13 The parties shall conclude a contract in the form of an offer and an acceptance.
    第十三条 【订立合同方式】当事人订立合同,采取要约、承诺方式。
Article 14 An offer is an expression of an intent to enter into a contract with another person. Such expression of intent shall comply with the following:
    第十四条 【要约】要约是希望和他人订立合同的意思表示,该意思表示应当符合下列规定:
(1) its contents shall be specific and definite;
  (一)内容具体确定;
(2) it indicates that the offeror will be bound by the expression of intent in case of acceptance by the offeree.
  (二)表明经受要约人承诺,要约人即受该意思表示约束。
Article 15 An invitation for offer is an expression of an intent to invite other parties to make offers thereto. Mailed price lists, public notices of auction and tender, prospectuses and commercial advertisements, etc. are invitations for offer.Where the contents of a commercial advertisement meet the requirements for an offer, it shall be regarded as an offer.
    第十五条 【要约邀请】要约邀请是希望他人向自己发出要约的意思表示。寄送的价目表、拍卖公告、招标公告、招股说明书、商业广告等为要约邀请。商业广告的内容符合要约规定的,视为要约。
Article 16 An offer becomes effective when it reaches the offeree.
If a contract is concluded through data-telex, and a recipient designates a specific system to receive the date-telex, the time when the data-telex enters such specific system shall be the time of arrival; if no specific system is appointed, the time when the data-telex first enters any of the recipient's systems shall be regarded as the time of arrival.
    第十六条 【要约的生效】要约到达受要约人时生效。
采用数据电文形式订立合同,收件人指定特定系统接收数据电文的,该数据电文进入该特定系统的时间,视为到达时间;未指定特定系统的,该数据电文进入收件人的任何系统的首次时间,视为到达时间。
Article 17 An offer may be withdrawn. The withdrawal notice shall reach the offeree before or at the same time when the offer arrives.
    第十七条 【要约的撤回】要约可以撤回。撤回要约的通知应当在要约到达受要约人之前或者与要约同时到达受要约人。
Article 18 An offer may be revoked. The revocation notice shall reach the offeree before it has dispatched a notice of acceptance.
    第十八条 【要约的撤销】要约可以撤销。撤销要约的通知应当在受要约人发出承诺通知之前到达受要约人。
Article 19 An offer may not be revoked, if
    第十九条 【要约不得撤销的情形】有下列情形之一的,要约不得撤销:
(1) the offeror indicates a fixed time for acceptance or otherwise explicitly states that the offer is irrevocable; or
  (一)要约人确定了承诺期限或者以其他形式明示要约不可撤销;
(2) the offeree has reasons to rely on the offer as being irrevocable and has made preparation for performing the contact.
  (二)受要约人有理由认为要约是不可撤销的,并已经为履行合同作了准备工作。
Article 20 An offer shall lose efficacy under any of the following circumstances:
    第二十条 【要约的失效】有下列情形之一的,要约失效:
(1) the notice of rejection reaches the offeror;
  (一)拒绝要约的通知到达要约人;
(2) the offeror revokes the offer in accordance with the law;
  (二)要约人依法撤销要约;
(3) the offeree fails to dispatch an acceptance before the expiration of the time limit for acceptance;
  (三)承诺期限届满,受要约人未作出承诺;
(4) the offeree makes substantial changes to the contents of the offer.
  (四)受要约人对要约的内容作出实质性变更。
Article 21 An acceptance is the expression of an intention to by the offeree to assent to the offer.
    第二十一条 【承诺的定义】承诺是受要约人同意要约的意思表示。
Article 22 The acceptance shall be made in the form of a notice, except where acceptance may be made by an act on the basis of customary business practice or as expressed in the offer.
    第二十二条 【承诺的方式】承诺应当以通知的方式作出,但根据交易习惯或者要约表明可以通过行为作出承诺的除外。
Article 23 An acceptance shall reach the offeror within the time limit prescribed in the offer.
Where no time limit is prescribed in the offer, the acceptance shall reach the offeror in accordance with the following provisions:
    第二十三条 【承诺的期限】承诺应当在要约确定的期限内到达要约人。
要约没有确定承诺期限的,承诺应当依照下列规定到达:
(1) if the offer is made in dialogues, the acceptance shall be made immediately unless otherwise agreed upon by the parties;
  (一)要约以对话方式作出的,应当即时作出承诺,但当事人另有约定的除外;
(2) If the offer is made in forms other than a dialogue, the acceptance shall reach the offeror within a reasonable period of time.
  (二)要约以非对话方式作出的,承诺应当在合理期限内到达。
Article 24 Where an offer is made by letter or telegram, the time limit for acceptance shall accrue from the date shown in the letter or from the date on which the telegram is handed in for dispatch. If no such date is shown in the letter, it shall accrue from the postmark date on the envelope.Where an offer is made by means of instantaneous communication, such as telephone or facsimile,etc. the time limit for acceptance shall accrue from the moment that the offer reaches the offeree.
    第二十四条 【承诺期限的起点】要约以信件或者电报作出的,承诺期限自信件载明的日期或者电报交发之日开始计算。信件未载明日期的,自投寄该信件的邮戳日期开始计算。要约以电话、传真等快速通讯方式作出的,承诺期限自要约到达受要约人时开始计算。
Article 25 A contract is established when the acceptance becomes effective.
    第二十五条 【合同成立时间】承诺生效时合同成立。
Article 26 An acceptance becomes effective when its notice reaches the offeror. If notice of acceptance is not required, the acceptance shall become effective when an act of acceptance is performed in accordance with transaction practices or as required in the offer.
Where a contract is concluded in the form of date-telex, the time of arrival of an acceptance shall be governed by the provisions of Paragraph 2, Article 16 of this Law.
    第二十六条 【承诺的生效】承诺通知到达要约人时生效。承诺不需要通知的,根据交易习惯或者要约的要求作出承诺的行为时生效。
采用数据电文形式订立合同的,承诺到达的时间适用本法第十六条第二款的规定。
Article 27 An acceptance may be withdrawn, but a notice of withdrawal shall reach the offeror before or at the same time when the notice of acceptance reaches the offeror.
    第二十七条 【承诺的撤回】承诺可以撤回。撤回承诺的通知应当在承诺通知到达要约人之前或者与承诺通知同时到达要约人。
Article 28 Where an offeree makes an acceptance beyond the time limit for acceptance, the acceptance shall be a new offer except that the offeror promptly informs the offeree of the effectiveness of the said acceptance.
    第二十八条 【新要约】受要约人超过承诺期限发出承诺的,除要约人及时通知受要约人该承诺有效的以外,为新要约。
Article 29 If the offeree dispatched the acceptance within the time limit specified for acceptance, and under normal circumstances the acceptance would have reached the offeror in due time, but due to other reasons the acceptance reaches the offeror after the time limit for acceptance has expired,such acceptance shall be effective, unless the offeror notifies the offeree in a timely manner that it does not accept the acceptance due to the failure of the acceptance to arrive within the time limit.
    第二十九条 【迟到的承诺】受要约人在承诺期限内发出承诺,按照通常情形能够及时到达要约人,但因其他原因承诺到达要约人时超过承诺期限的,除要约人及时通知受要约人因承诺超过期限不接受该承诺的以外,该承诺有效。
Article 30 The contents of an acceptance shall comply with those of the offer. If the offeree substantially modifies the contents of the offer, it shall constitute a new offer. The modification relating to the subject matter, quality, quantity, price or remuneration, time or place or method of performance, liabilities for breach of contract and method of dispute resolution, etc. shall constitute the substantial modification of an offer.
    第三十条 【承诺的变更】承诺的内容应当与要约的内容一致。受要约人对要约的内容作出实质性变更的,为新要约。有关合同标的、数量、质量、价款或者报酬、履行期限、履行地点和方式、违约责任和解决争议方法等的变更,是对要约内容的实质性变更。
Article 31 If the acceptance does not substantially modifies the contents of the offer, it shall be effective, and the contents of the contract shall be subject to those of the acceptance, except as rejected promptly by the offeror or indicated in the offer that an acceptance may not modify the offer at all.
    第三十一条 【承诺的内容】承诺对要约的内容作出非实质性变更的,除要约人及时表示反对或者要约表明承诺不得对要约的内容作出任何变更的以外,该承诺有效,合同的内容以承诺的内容为准。
Article 32 Where the parties conclude a contract in written form, the contract is established when it is signed or sealed by the parties.
    第三十二条 【合同成立时间】当事人采用合同书形式订立合同的,自双方当事人签字或者盖章时合同成立。
Article 33 Where the parties conclude the contract in the form of letters or data-telex, etc., one party may request to sign a letter of confirmation before the conclusion of the contract. The contract shall be established at the time when the letter of confirmation is signed.
    第三十三条 【确认书与合同成立】当事人采用信件、数据电文等形式订立合同的,可以在合同成立之前要求签订确认书。签订确认书时合同成立。
Article 34 The place of effectiveness of an acceptance shall be the place of the establishment of the contract.
If the contract is concluded in the form of data-telex, the main business place of the recipient shall be the place of establishment. If the recipient does not have a main business place, its habitual residence shall be considered to be the place of establishment. Where the parties agree otherwise, such agreement shall apply.
    第三十四条 【合同成立地点】承诺生效的地点为合同成立的地点。
采用数据电文形式订立合同的,收件人的主营业地为合同成立的地点;没有主营业地的,其经常居住地为合同成立的地点。当事人另有约定的,按照其约定。
Article 35 Where the parties conclude a contract in written form, the place where both parties sign or affix their seals on the contract shall be the place of establishment.
    第三十五条 【书面合同成立地点】当事人采用合同书形式订立合同的,双方当事人签字或者盖章的地点为合同成立的地点。
Article 36 Where a contract is to be concluded in written form as required by relevant laws and administrative regulations or as agreed by the parties, and the parties failed to conclude the contract in written form, but one party has performed the principal obligation and the other party has accepted it, the contract is established.
    第三十六条 【书面合同与合同成立】法律、行政法规规定或者当事人约定采用书面形式订立合同,当事人未采用书面形式但一方已经履行主要义务,对方接受的,该合同成立。
Article 37 Where a contract is to be concluded in written form, if one party has performed its principal obligation and the other party has accepted it before signing or sealing of the contract, the contract is established.
    第三十七条 【合同书与合同成立】采用合同书形式订立合同,在签字或者盖章之前,当事人一方已经履行主要义务,对方接受的,该合同成立。
Article 38 Where the State has issued a mandatory plan or a State purchasing order based on necessity,the relevant legal persons and the other organizations shall conclude a contract between them in accordance with the rights and obligations as stipulated by the relevant laws and administrative regulations.
    第三十八条 【依国家计划订立合同】国家根据需要下达指令性任务或者国家订货任务的,有关法人、其他组织之间应当依照有关法律、行政法规规定的权利和义务订立合同。
Article 39 Where standard terms are adopted in concluding a contract, the party supplying the standard terms shall define the rights and obligations between the parties abiding by the principle of fairness, and shall inform the other party to note the exclusion or restriction of its liabilities in a reasonable way, and shall explain the standard terms upon request by the otherparty.
Standard terms are clauses that are prepared in advance for general and repeated use by one party, and which are not negotiated with the other party when the contract is concluded.
    第三十九条 【格式合同条款定义及使用人义务】采用格式条款订立合同的,提供格式条款的一方应当遵循公平原则确定当事人之间的权利和义务,并采取合理的方式提请对方注意免除或者限制其责任的条款,按照对方的要求,对该条款予以说明。
格式条款是当事人为了重复使用而预先拟定,并在订立合同时未与对方协商的条款。
Article 40 When standard terms are under the circumstances stipulated in Articles 52 and 53 of this Law,or the party which supplies the standard terms exempts itself from its liabilities, increases the liabilities of the other party, and deprives the material rights of the other party, the terms shall be invalid.
    第四十条 【格式合同条款的无效】格式条款具有本法第五十二条和第五十三条规定情形的,或者提供格式条款一方免除其责任、加重对方责任、排除对方主要权利的,该条款无效。
Article 41 If a dispute over the understanding of the standard terms occurs, it shall be interpreted in accordance with common understanding. Where there are two or more kinds of interpretation, an interpretation unfavorable to the party supplying the standard terms shall prevail. Where the standard terms are inconsistent with non-standard terms, the latter shall prevail.
    第四十一条 【格式合同的解释】对格式条款的理解发生争议的,应当按照通常理解予以解释。对格式条款有两种以上解释的,应当作出不利于提供格式条款一方的解释。格式条款和非格式条款不一致的,应当采用非格式条款。
Article 42 The party shall be liable for damage if it is under one of the following circumstances in concluding a contract and thus causing losses to the other party:
    第四十二条 【缔约过失】当事人在订立合同过程中有下列情形之一,给对方造成损失的,应当承担损害赔偿责任:
(1) pretending to conclude a contract, and negotiating in bad faith;
  (一)假借订立合同,恶意进行磋商;
(2) deliberately concealing important facts relating to the conclusion of the contract or providing false information;
  (二)故意隐瞒与订立合同有关的重要事实或者提供虚假情况;
(3) performing other acts which violate the principle of good faith.
  (三)有其他违背诚实信用原则的行为。
Article 43 A trade secret the parties learn in concluding a contract shall not be disclosed or improperly used, no matter the contract is established or not. If the party discloses or improperly uses such trade secret and thus causing loss to the other party, it shall be liable for damages.
    第四十三条 【保密义务】当事人在订立合同过程中知悉的商业秘密,无论合同是否成立,不得泄露或者不正当地使用。泄露或者不正当地使用该商业秘密给对方造成损失的,应当承担损害赔偿责任。
Chapter 3 Validity of Contracts
 

第三章 合同的效力

Article 44 The contract established according to law becomes effective upon its establishment.
With regard to contracts that are subject to approval or registration as stipulated by relevant laws or administrative regulations, the provisions thereof shall be followed.
    第四十四条 【合同的生效】依法成立的合同,自成立时生效。
法律、行政法规规定应当办理批准、登记等手续生效的,依照其规定。
Article 45 The parties may agree on that the effectiveness of a contract be subject to certain conditions. A contract whose effectiveness is subject to certain conditions shall become effective when such conditions are accomplished. The contract with dissolving conditions shall become invalid when such conditions are satisfied.
If a party improperly prevent the satisfaction of a condition for its own interests, the condition shall be regarded as having been a]]>
MARITIME LAW OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA Tue, 28 Jan 2020 22:02:26 +0800 中华人民共和国海商法(英文版)

MARITIME LAW OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA

 

(Adopted at the 28th Meeting of the Standing Committee of the SeventhNational People's Congress on November 7, 1992, promulgated by Order No. 64 ofthe President of the People's Republic of China on November 7, 1992, andeffective as of July 1, 1993)

 

Chapter I General Provisions

Chapter II Ships

Section 1 Ownership of Ships

Section 2 Mortgage of Ships

Section 3 Maritime Liens

Chapter III Crew

Section 1 Basic Principles

Section 2 the Master

Chapter IV Contract of Carriage of Goods by Sea

Section 1 Basic Principles

Section 2 Carrier's Responsibilities

Section 3 Shipper's Responsibilities

Section 4 Transport Documents

Section 5 Delivery of Goods

Section 6 Cancellation of Contract

Section 7 Special Provisions Regarding Voyage Charter Party

Section 8 Special Provisions Regarding Multimodal Transport Contract

Chapter V Contract of Carriage of Passengers by Sea

Chapter VI Charter Parties

Section 1 Basic Principles

Section 2 Time Charter Party

Section 3 Bareboat Charter Party

Chapter VII Contract of Sea Towage

Chapter VIII Collision of Ships

Chapter IX Salvage at Sea

Chapter X General Average

Chapter XI Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims

Chapter XII Contract of Marine Insurance

Section 1 Basic Principles

Section 2 Conclusion, Termination and Assignment of Contract

Section 3 Obligations of the Insured

Section 4 Liability of the Insurer

Section 5 Loss of or Damage to the Subject Matter Insured and Abandonment

Section 6 Payment of Indemnity

Chapter XIII Limitation of Time

Chapter XIV application of Law in Relation to Foreign-Related Matters

Chapter XV Supplementary Provisions

 

Article 1

This Code is enacted with a view to regulating the relations arising frommaritime transport and those pertaining to ships, to securing and protectingthe legitimate rights and interests of the parties concerned, and to promotingthe development of maritime transport, economy and trade.

 

Article 2

"Maritime transport" as referred to in this Code means thecarriage of goods and passengers by sea, including the sea-river and river-seadirect transport.

The provisions concerning contracts of carriage of goods by sea ascontained in Chapter IV of this Code shall not be applicable to the maritimetransport of goods between the ports of the People's Republic of China.

 

Article 3

"Ship" as referred to in this Code means sea-going ships andother mobile units, but does not include ships or craft to be used for militaryor public service purposes, nor small ships of less than 20 tons gross tonnage.

The term "ship" as referred to in the preceding paragraph shallalso include ship's apparel.

 

Article 4

Maritime transport and towage services between the ports of the People'sRepublic of China shall be undertaken by ships flying the national flag of thePeople's Republic of China, except as otherwise provided for by laws oradministrative rules and regulations.

No foreign ships may engage in the maritime transport or towage servicesbetween the ports of the People's Republic of China unless permitted by thecompetent authorities of transport and communications under the State Council.

 

Article 5

Ships are allowed to sail under the national flag of the People's Republicof China after being registered, as required by law, and granted thenationality of the People's Republic of China.

Ships illegally flying the national flag of the People's Republic of Chinashall be prohibited and fined by the authorities concerned.

 

Article 6

All matters pertaining to maritime transport shall be administered by thecompetent authorities of transport and communications under the State Council.The specific measures governing such administration shall be worked out by suchauthorities and implemented after being submitted to and approved by the StateCouncil.

 

Article 7

The ownership of a ship means the shipowner's rights to lawfully possess,utilize, profit from and dispose of the ship in his ownership.

 

Article 8

With respect to a State-owned ship operated by an enterprise owned by thewhole people having a legal person status granted by the State, the provisionsof this Code regarding the shipowner shall apply to that legal person.

 

Article 9

The acquisition, transference or extinction of the ownership of a shipshall be registered at the ship registration authorities; no acquisition,transference or extinction of the ship's ownership shall act against a thirdparty unless registered.

The transference of the ownership of a ship shall be made by a contract inwriting.

 

Article 10

Where a ship is jointly owned by two or more legal persons or individuals,the joint ownership thereof shall be registered at the ship registrationauthorities. The joint ownership of the ship shall not act against a thirdparty unless registered.

 

Article 11

The right of mortgage with respect to a ship is the right of preferredcompensation enjoyed by the mortgagee of that ship from the proceeds of theauction sale made in accordance with law where and when the mortgagor fails topay his debt to the mortgagee secured by the mortgage of that ship.

 

Article 12

The owner of a ship or those authorized thereby may establish the mortgageof the ship.

The mortgage of a ship shall be established by a contract in writing.

 

Article 13

The mortgage of a ship shall be established by registering the mortgage ofthe ship with the ship registration authorities jointly by the mortgagee andthe mortgagor. No mortgage may act against a third party unless registered.

The main items for the registration of the mortgage of a ship shall be:

(1) Name or designation and address of the mortgagee and the name ofdesignation and address of the mortgagor of the ship;

(2) Name and nationality of the mortgaged ship and the authorities thatissued the certificate of ownership and the certificate number thereof;

(3) Amount of debt secured, the interest rate and the period for therepayment of the debt.

Information about the registration of mortgage of ships shall beaccessible to the public for enquiry.

 

Article 14

Mortgage may be established on a ship under construction.

In registering the mortgage of a ship under construction, the buildingcontract of the ship shall as well be submitted to the ship registrationauthorities.

 

Article 15

The mortgaged ship shall be insured by the mortgagor unless the contractprovides otherwise. In case the ship is not insured, the mortgagee has theright to place the ship under insurance coverage and the mortgagor shall payfor the premium thereof.

 

Article 16

The establishment of mortgage by the joint owners of a ship shall, unlessotherwise agreed upon among the joint owners, be subject to the agreement ofthose joint owners who have more than two-thirds of the shares thereof.

The mortgage established by the joint owners of a ship shall not beaffected by virtue of the division of ownership thereof.

 

Article 17

Once a mortgage is established on a ship, the ownership of the mortgagedship shall not be transferred without the consent of the mortgagee.

 

Article 18

In case the mortgagee has transferred all or part of his right to debtsecured by the mortgaged ship to another person, the mortgage shall betransferred accordingly.

 

Article 19

Two or more mortgages may be established on the same ship. The ranking ofthe mortgages shall be determined according to the dates of their respectiveregistrations.

In case two or more mortgages are established, the mortgagees shall bepaid out of the proceeds of the auction sale of the ship in the order ofregistration of their respective mortgages. The mortgages registered on thesame date shall rank equally for payment.

 

Article 20

The mortgages shall be extinguished when the mortgaged ship is lost. Withrespect to the compensation paid from the insurance coverage on account of theloss of the ship, the mortgagee shall be entitled to enjoy priority incompensation over other creditors.

 

Article 21

A maritime lien is the right of the claimant, subject to the provisions ofArticle 22 of this Code, to take priority in compensation against shipowners,bareboat charterers or ship operators with respect to the ship which gave riseto the said claim.

 

Article 22

The following maritime claims shall be entitled to maritime liens:

(1) Payment claims for wages, other remuneration, crew repatriation andsocial insurance costs made by the Master, crew members and other members ofthe complement in accordance with the relevant labour laws, administrativerules and regulations or labour contracts;

(2) Claims in respect of loss of life or personal injury occurred in theoperation of the ship;

(3) Payment claims for ship's tonnage dues, pilotage dues, harbour duesand other port charges;

(4) Payment claims for salvage payment;

(5) Compensation claims for loss of or damage to property resulting fromtortious act in the course of the operation of the ship.

Compensation claims for oil pollution damage caused by a ship carryingmore than 2,000 tons of oil in bulk as cargo that has a valid certificateattesting that the ship has oil pollution liability insurance coverage or otherappropriate financial security are not within the scope of sub-paragraph (5) ofthe preceding paragraph.

 

Article 23

The maritime claims set out in paragraph 1 of Article 22 shall besatisfied in the order listed. However, any of the maritime claims set out insub-paragraph (4) arising later than those under sub-paragraph (1) through (3)shall have priority over those under sub- paragraph (1) through (3). In casethere are more than two maritime claims under sub-paragraphs (1), (2), (3) or(5) of paragraph 1 of Article 22, they shall be satisfied at the same timeregardless of their respective occurrences; where they could not be paid infull, they shall be paid in proportion. Should there be more than two maritimeclaims under sub-paragraph (4), those arising later shall be satisfied first.

 

Article 24

The legal costs for enforcing the maritime liens, the expenses forpreserving and selling the ship, the expenses for distribution of the proceedsof sale and other expenses incurred for the common interests of the claimants,shall be deducted and paid first from the proceeds of the auction sale of theship.

 

Article 25

A maritime lien shall have priority over a possessory lien, and apossessory lien shall have priority over ship mortgage.

The possessory lien referred to in the preceding paragraph means the rightof the ship builder or repairer to secure the building or repairing cost of theship by means of detaining the ship in his possession when the other party tothe contract fails in the performance thereof. The possessory lien shall beextinguished when the ship builder or repairer no longer possesses the ship hehas built or repaired.

 

Article 26

Maritime liens shall not be extinguished by virtue of the transfer of theownership of the ship, except those that have not been enforced within 60 daysof a public notice on the transfer of the ownership of the ship made by a courtat the request of the transferee when the transfer was effected.

 

Article 27

In case the maritime claims provided for in Article 22 of this Code aretransferred, the maritime liens attached thereto shall be transferredaccordingly.

 

Article 28

A maritime lien shall be enforced by the court by arresting the ship thatgave rise to the said maritime lien.

 

Article 29

A maritime lien shall, except as provided for in Article 26 of this Code,be extinguished under one of the following circumstances:

(1) The maritime claim attached by a maritime lien has not been enforcedwithin one year of the existence of such maritime lien;

(2) The ship in question has been the subject of a forced sale by thecourt;

(3) The ship has been lost.

The period of one year specified in sub-paragraph (1) of the precedingparagraph shall not be suspended or interrupted.

 

Article 30

The provisions of this Section shall not affect the implementation of thelimitation of liability for maritime claims provided for in Chapter XI of thisCode.

 

Article 31

The term "crew" means the entire complement of the ship,including the Master.

 

Article 32

The Master, deck officers, chief engineer, engineers, electrical engineerand radio operator must be those in possession of appropriate certificates ofcompetency.

 

Article 33

Chinese "crew" engaged in international voyages must possessSeaman's Book and other relevant certificates issued by the harboursuperintendency authorities of the People's Republic of China.

 

Article 34

In the absence of specific stipulations in this Code as regards theemployment of the crew as well as their labour-related rights and obligations,the provisions of the relevant laws and administrative rules and regulationsshall apply.

 

Article 35

The Master shall be responsible for the management and navigation of theship.

Orders given by the Master within the scope of his functions and powersmust be carried out by other members of the crew, the passengers and allpersons on board.

The Master shall take necessary measures to protect the ship and allpersons on board, the documents, postal matters, the goods as well as otherproperty carried.

 

Article 36

To ensure the safety of the ship and all persons on board, the Mastershall be entitled to confine or take other necessary measures against those whohave committed crimes or violated laws or regulations on board, and to guardagainst their concealment, destruction or forging of evidence.

The Master, having taken actions as referred to in the preceding paragraphof this Article, shall make a written report of the case, which shall bear thesignature of the Master himself and those of two or more others on board, andshall be handed over, together with the offender, to the authorities concernedfor disposition.

 

Article 37

The Master shall make entries in the log book of any occurrence of birthor death on board and shall issue a certificate to that effect in the presenceof two witnesses. The death certificate shall be attached with a list ofpersonal belongings of the deceased, and attestation shall be given by theMaster to the will, if any, of the deceased. Both the death certificate and thewill shall be taken into safe keeping by the Master and handed over to thefamily members of the deceased or the organizations concerned.

 

Article 38

Where a sea casualty has occurred to a ship and the life and property onboard have thus been threatened, the Master shall, with crew members and otherpersons on board under his command, make best efforts to run to the rescue.

Should the foundering and loss of the ship have become inevitable, theMaster may decide to abandon the ship. However, such abandonment shall bereported to the shipowner for approval except in case of emergency.

Upon abandoning the ship, the Master must take all measures first to evacuatethe passengers safely from the ship in an orderly way, then make arrangementsfor crew members to evacuate, while the Master shall be the last to evacuate.

Before leaving the ship, the Master shall direct the crew members to dotheir utmost to rescue the deck log book, the engine log book, the oil recordbook, the radio log book, the charts, documents and papers used in the currentvoyage, as well as valuables, postal matters and cash money.

 

Article 39

The duty of the Master in the management and navigation of the ship shallnot be absolved even with the presence of a pilot piloting the ship.

 

Article 40

Should death occur to the Master or the Master be unable to perform hisduties for whatever reason, the deck officer with the highest rank shall act asthe Master; before the ship sails from its next port of call, the shipownershall appoint a new Master to take command.

 

CHAPTER IV CONTRACT OF CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA
Article 41

A contract of carriage of goods by sea is a contract under which the carrier,against payment of freight, undertakes to carry by sea the goods contracted forshipment by the shipper from one port to another.

 

Article 42

For the purposes of this Chapter:

(1) "Carrier" means the person by whom or in whose name acontract of carriage of goods by sea has been concluded with a shipper;

(2) "Actual carrier" means the person to whom the performance ofcarriage of goods, or of part of the carriage, has been entrusted by thecarrier, and includes any other person to whom such performance has beenentrusted under a sub-contract;

(3) "Shipper" means:

a) The person by whom or in whose name or on whose behalf a contract ofcarriage of goods by sea has been concluded with a carrier;

b) The person by whom or in whose name or on whose behalf the goods havebeen delivered to the carrier involved in the contract of carriage of goods bysea;

(4) "Consignee" means the person who is entitled to takedelivery of the goods;

(5) "Goods" includes live animals and containers, pallets orsimilar articles of transport supplied by the shipper for consolidating thegoods.

 

Article 43

The carrier or the shipper may demand confirmation of the contract ofcarriage of goods by sea in writing. However, voyage charter shall be done inwriting. Telegrams, telexes and telefaxes have the effect of written documents.

 

Article 44

Any stipulation in a contract of carriage of goods by sea or a bill oflading or other similar documents evidencing such contract that derogates fromthe provisions of this Chapter shall be null and void. However, such nullityand voidness shall not affect the validity of other provisions of the contractor the bill of lading or other similar documents. A clause assigning thebenefit of insurance of the goods in favour of the carrier or any similarclause shall be null and void.

 

Article 45

The provisions of Article 44 of this Code shall not prejudice the increaseof duties and obligations by the carrier besides those set out in this Chapter.

 

Section 2 Carrier's Responsibilities
Article 46

The responsibilities of the carrier with regard to the goods carried incontainers covers the entire period during which the carrier is in charge ofthe goods, starting from the time the carrier has taken over the goods at theport of loading, until the goods have been delivered at the port of discharge.The responsibility of the carrier with respect to non-containerized goodscovers the period during which the carrier is in charge of the goods, startingfrom the time of loading of the goods onto the ship until the time the goodsare discharged therefrom. During the period the carrier is in charge of thegoods, the carrier shall be liable for the loss of or damage to the goods,except as otherwise provided for in this Section.

The provisions of the preceding paragraph shall not prevent the carrierfrom entering into any agreement concerning carrier's responsibilities withregard to non-containerized goods prior to loading onto and after dischargingfrom the ship.

 

Article 47

The carrier shall, before and at the beginning of the voyage, exercise duediligence to make the ship seaworthy, properly man, equip and supply the shipand to make the holds, refrigerating and cool chambers and all other parts ofthe ship in which goods are carried, fit and safe for their reception, carriageand preservation.

 

Article 48

The carrier shall properly and carefully load, handle, stow, carry, keep,care for and discharge the goods carried.

 

Article 49

The carrier shall carry the goods to the port of discharge on the agreedor customary or geographically direct route.

Any deviation in saving or attempting to save life or property at sea orany reasonable deviation shall not be deemed to be an act deviating from theprovisions of the preceding paragraph.

 

Article 50

Delay in delivery occurs when the goods have not been delivered at thedesignated port of discharge within the time expressly agreed upon.

The carrier shall be liable for the loss of or damage to the goods causedby delay in delivery due to the fault of the carrier, except those arising orresulting from causes for which the carrier is not liable as provided for inthe relevant Articles of this Chapter.

The carrier shall be liable for the economic losses caused by delay indelivery of the goods due to the fault of the carrier, even if no loss of ordamage to the goods had actually occurred, unless such economic losses hadoccurred from causes for which the carrier is not liable as provided for in therelevant Articles of this Chapter.

The person entitled to make a claim for the loss of goods may treat thegoods as lost when the carrier has not delivered the goods within 60 days fromthe expiry of the time for delivery specified in paragraph 1 of this Article.

 

Article 51

The carrier shall not be liable for the loss of or damage to the goodsoccurred during the period of carrier's responsibility arising or resultingfrom any of the following causes:

(1) Fault of the Master, crew members, pilot or servant of the carrier inthe navigation or management of the ship;

(2) Fire, unless caused by the actual fault of the carrier;

(3) Force majeure and perils, dangers and accidents of the sea or othernavigable waters;

(4) War or armed conflict;

(5) Act of the government or competent authorities, quarantinerestrictions or seizure under legal process;

(6) Strikes, stoppages or restraint of labour;

(7) Saving or attempting to save life or property at sea;

(8) Act of the shipper, owner of the goods or their agents;

(9) Nature or inherent vice of the goods;

(10) Inadequacy of packing or insufficiency of illegibility of marks;

(11) Latent defect of the ship not discoverable by due diligence;

(12) Any other causes arising without the fault of the carrier or hisservant or agent.

The carrier who is entitled to exoneration from the liability forcompensation as provided for in the preceding paragraph shall, with theexception of the causes given in sub-paragraph (2), bear the burden of proof.

 

Article 52

The carrier shall not be liable for the loss of or damage to the liveanimals arising or resulting from the special risks inherent in the carriagethereof. However, the carrier shall be bound to prove that he has fulfilled thespecial requirements of the shipper with regard to the carriage of the live animalsand that under the circumstances of the sea carriage, the loss or damage hasoccurred due to the special risks inherent therein.

 

Article 53

In case the carrier intends to ship the goods on deck, he shall come intoan agreement with the shipper or comply with the custom of the trade or therelevant laws or administrative rules and regulations.

When the goods have been shipped on deck in accordance with the provisionsof the preceding paragraph, the carrier shall not be liable for the loss of ordamage to the goods caused by the special risks involved in such carriage.

If the carrier, in breach of the provisions of the first paragraph of thisArticle, has shipped the goods on deck and the goods have consequently sufferedloss or damage, the carrier shall be liable therefore.

 

Article 54

Where loss or damage or delay in delivery has occurred from causes fromwhich the carrier or his servant or agent is not entitled to exoneration fromliability, together with another cause, the carrier shall be liable only to theextent that the loss, damage or delay in delivery is attributable to the causesfrom which the carrier is not entitled to exoneration from liability; however,the carrier shall bear the burden of proof with respect to the loss, damage ordelay in delivery resulting from the other cause.

 

Article 55

The amount of indemnity for the loss of the goods shall be calculated onthe basis of the actual value of the goods so lost, while that for the damageto the goods shall be calculated on the basis of the difference between thevalues of the goods before and after the damage, or on the basis of theexpenses for the repair.

The actual value shall be the value of the goods at the time of shipmentplus insurance and freight.

From the actual value referred to in the preceding paragraph, deductionshall be made, at the time of compensation, of the expenses that had beenreduced or avoided as a result of the loss or damage occurred.

 

Article 56

The carrier's liability for the loss of or damage to the goods shall belimited to an amount equivalent to 666.67 Units of Account per package or othershipping unit, or 2 Units of Account per kilogramme of the gross weight of thegoods lost or damaged, whichever is the higher, except where the nature andvalue of the goods had been declared by the shipper before shipment andinserted in the bill of lading, or where a higher amount than the amount oflimitation of liability set out in this Article had been agreed upon betweenthe carrier and the shipper.

Where a container, pallet or similar article of transport is used to consolidategoods, the number of packages or other shipping units enumerated in the bill oflading as packed in such article of transport shall be deemed to be the numberof packages or shipping units. If not so enumerated, the goods in such articleof transport shall be deemed to be one package or one shipping unit.

Where the article of transport is not owned or furnished by the carrier,such article of transport shall be deemed to be one package or one shippingunit.

 

Article 57

The liability of the carrier for the economic losses resulting from delayin delivery of the goods shall be limited to an amount equivalent to thefreight payable for the goods so delayed. Where the loss of or damage to thegoods has occurred concurrently with the delay in delivery thereof, thelimitation of liability of the carrier shall be that as provided for inparagraph 1 of Article 56 of this Code.

 

Article 58

The defence and limitation of liability provided for in this Chapter shallapply to any legal action brought against the carrier with regard to the lossof or damage to or delay in delivery of the goods covered by the contract ofcarriage of goods by sea, whether the claimant is a party to the contract orwhether the action is founded in contract or in tort.

The provisions of the preceding paragraph shall apply if the actionreferred to in the preceding paragraph is brought against the carrier's servantor agent, and the carrier's servant or agent proves that his action was withinthe scope of his employment or agency.

 

Article 59

The carrier shall not be entitled to the benefit of the limitation ofliability provided for in Article 56 or 57 of this Code if it is proved thatthe loss, damage or delay in delivery of the goods resulted from an act oromission of the carrier done with the intent to cause such loss, damage ordelay or recklessly and with knowledge that such loss, damage or delay wouldprobably result.

The servant or agent of the carrier shall not be entitled to the benefitof limitation of liability provided for in Article 56 or 57 of this Code, if itis proved that the loss, damage or delay in delivery resulted from an act oromission of the servant or agent of the carrier done with the intent to causesuch loss, damage or delay or recklessly and with knowledge that such loss,damage or delay would probably result.

 

Article 60

Where the performance of the carriage or part thereof has been entrustedto an actual carrier, the carrier shall nevertheless remain responsible for theentire carriage according to the provisions of this Chapter. The carrier shallbe responsible, in relation to the carriage performed by the actual carrier,for the act or omission of the actual carrier and of his servant or agentacting within the scope of his employment or agency.

Notwithstanding the provisions of the preceding paragraph, where acontract of carriage by sea provides explicitly that a specified part of thecarriage covered by the said contract is to be performed by a named actualcarrier other than the carrier, the contract may nevertheless provide that thecarrier shall not be liable for the loss, damage or delay in delivery arisingfrom an occurrence which takes place while the goods are in the charge of theactual carrier during such part of the carriage.

 

Article 61

The provisions with respect to the responsibility of the carrier containedin this Chapter shall be applicable to the actual carrier. Where an action isbrought against the servant or agent of the actual carrier, the provisionscontained in paragraph 2 of Article 58 and paragraph 2 of Article 59 of thisCode shall apply.

 

Article 62

Any special agreement under which the carrier assumes obligations notprovided for in this Chapter or waives rights conferred by this Chapter shallbe binding upon the actual carrier when the actual carrier has agreed inwriting to the contents thereof. The provisions of such special agreement shallbe binding upon the carrier whether the actual carrier has agreed to thecontents or not.

 

Article 63

Where both the carrier and the actual carrier are liable for compensation,they shall jointly be liable within the scope of such liability.

 

Article 64

If claims for compensation have been separately made against the carrier,the actual carrier and their servants or agents with regard to the loss of ordamage to the goods, the aggregate amount of compensation shall not be inexcess of the limitation provided for in Article 56 of this Code.

 

Article 65

The provisions of Article 60 through 64 of this Code shall not affect therecourse between the carrier and the actual carrier.

 

Section 3 Shipper's Responsibilities
Article 66

The shipper shall have the goods properly packed and shall guarantee theaccuracy of the description, mark, number of packages or pieces, weight orquantity of the goods at the time of shipment and shall indemnity the carrieragainst any loss resulting from inadequacy of packing or inaccuracies in theabove-mentioned information.

The carrier's right to indemnification as provided for in the precedingparagraph shall not affect the obligation of the carrier under the contract ofcarriage of goods towards those other than the shipper.

 

Article 67

The shipper shall perform all necessary procedures at the port, customs,quarantine, inspection or other competent authorities with respect to theshipment of the goods and shall furnish to the carrier all relevant documentsconcerning the procedures the shipper has gone through. The shipper shall beliable for any damage to the interest of the carrier resulting from theinadequacy or inaccuracy or delay in delivery of such documents.

 

Article 68

At the time of shipment of dangerous goods, the shipper shall, incompliance with the regulations governing the carriage of such goods, have themproperly packed, distinctly marked and labelled and notify the carrier inwriting of their proper description, nature and the precautions to be taken. Incase the shipper fails to notify the carrier or notified him inaccurately, thecarrier may have such goods landed, destroyed or rendered innocuous when andwhere circumstances so require, without compensation. The shipper shall beliable to the carrier for any loss, damage or expense resulting from suchshippment.

Notwithstanding the carrier's knowledge of the nature of the dangerousgoods and his consent to carry, he may still have such goods landed, destroyedor rendered innocuous, without compensation, when they become an actual dangerto the ship, the crew and other persons on board or to other goods. However,the provisions of this paragraph shall not prejudice the contribution ingeneral average, if any.

 

Article 69

The shipper shall pay the freight to the carrier as agreed.

The shipper and the carrier may reach an agreement that the freight shallbe paid by the consignee. However, such an agreement shall be noted in thetransport documents.

 

Article 70

The shipper shall not be liable for the loss sustained by the carrier orthe actual carrier, or for the damage sustained by the ship, unless such lossor damage was caused by the fault of the shipper, his servant or agent.

The servant or agent of the shipper shall not be liable for the losssustained by the carrier or the actual carrier, or for the damage sustained bythe ship, unless the loss or damage was caused by the fault of the servant oragent of the shipper.

 

Article 71

A bill of lading is a document which serves as an evidence of the contractof carriage of goods by sea and the taking over or loading of the goods by thecarrier, and based on which the carrier undertakes to deliver the goods againstsurrendering the same. A provision in the document stating that the goods areto be delivered to the order of a named person, or to order, or to bearer,constitutes such an undertaking.

 

Article 72

When the goods have been taken over by the carrier or have been loaded onboard, the carrier shall, on demand of the shipper, issue to the shipper a billof lading.

The bill of lading may be signed by a person authorized by the carrier. Abill of lading signed by the Master of the ship carrying the goods is deemed tohave been signed on behalf of the carrier.

 

Article 73

A bill of lading shall contain the following particulars:

(1) Description of the goods, mark, number of packages or pieces, weightor quantity, and a statement, if applicable, as to the dangerous nature of thegoods;

(2) Name and principal place of business of the carrier;

(3) Name of the ship;

(4) Name of the shipper;

China lawyer,Legal service in China, Legal consultation of investing a project in China,International Trade Dispute Legal Service. Please contact us at info@zhengyunlawyer.com


 《中华人民共和国外商投资法》

Foreign Investment Law of the People's Republic of China

 

(2019年3月15日第十三届全国人民代表大会第二次会议通过)
(Adopted at the 2nd session of the 13th National People's Congress on March 15, 2019) 

目 录
Table of Contents

第一章 总则
Chapter I General Provisions


第二章 投资促进
Chapter II Investment Promotion


第三章 投资保护
Chapter III Investment Protection


第四章 投资管理
Chapter IV Investment Management


第五章 法律责任
Chapter V Legal Liability


第六章 附 则
Chapter VI Supplementary Provisions

 

第一章 总则
Chapter I General Provisions

第一条 为了进一步扩大对外开放,积极促进外商投资,保护外商投资合法权益,规范外商投资管理,推动形成全面开放新格局,促进社会主义市场经济健康发展,根据宪法,制定本法。
Article 1 In order to further expand opening up, actively promote foreign investment, protect the legitimate rights and interests of foreign investment, standardize foreign investment management, facilitate the formation of a comprehensive and new opening-up pattern, and promote the healthy development of the socialist market economy, this Law is enacted in accordance with the Constitution.

第二条 在中华人民共和国境内(以下简称中国境内)的外商投资,适用本法。
Article 2 This Law applies to foreign investment in the territory of the People's Republic of China (hereinafter referred to as “within the territory of China”).

本法所称外商投资,是指外国的自然人、企业或者其他组织(以下称外国投资者)直接或者间接在中国境内进行的投资活动,包括下列情形:
Foreign investment mentioned in this Law refers to the investment activities of foreign natural persons, enterprises or other organizations (hereinafter referred to as foreign investors) directly or indirectly within the territory of China, including the following:

(一)外国投资者单独或者与其他投资者共同在中国境内设立外商投资企业;
(1) Foreign investors set up foreign-invested enterprises in China alone or jointly with other investors;


(二)外国投资者取得中国境内企业的股份、股权、财产份额或者其他类似权益;
(2) Foreign investors obtain shares, equities, property shares or other similar rights and interests of enterprises within the territory of China;


(三)外国投资者单独或者与其他投资者共同在中国境内投资新建项目;
(3) Foreign investors investing in new projects in China alone or jointly with other investors;


(四)法律、行政法规或者国务院规定的其他方式的投资。
(4) Other investment prescribed by laws, administrative regulations or specified by the State Council.

 

本法所称外商投资企业,是指全部或者部分由外国投资者投资,依照中国法律在中国境内经登记注册设立的企业。
Foreign-invested enterprises mentioned in this Law refer to enterprises that are wholly or partly invested by foreign investors and registered within the territory of China under the Chinese laws.

第三条 国家坚持对外开放的基本国策,鼓励外国投资者依法在中国境内投资。
Article 3 The State adheres to the basic State policy of opening to the outside world and encouraging foreign investors to invest within the territory of China.

国家实行高水平投资自由化便利化政策,建立和完善外商投资促进机制,营造稳定、透明、可预期和公平竞争的市场环境。
The State maintains a policy of high-level investment liberalization and facilitation, establishes and improves a mechanism for foreign investment promotion, and creates a stable, transparent, predictable and fair market environment.

第四条 国家对外商投资实行准入前国民待遇加负面清单管理制度。
Article 4 The State maintains a system of pre-entry national treatment plus a negative list management for foreign investment.

前款所称准入前国民待遇,是指在投资准入阶段给予外国投资者及其投资不低于本国投资者及其投资的待遇;所称负面清单,是指国家规定在特定领域对外商投资实施的准入特别管理措施。国家对负面清单之外的外商投资,给予国民待遇。
The pre-entry national treatment mentioned in the preceding paragraph refers to the treatment given to foreign investors and their investment at the stage of investment admission no less than that to domestic investors and their investments; the so-called negative list refers to the special management measures that are adopted for the admission of foreign investment in specific areas. The State gives national treatment to foreign investment outside the negative list.

负面清单由国务院发布或者批准发布。
The negative list is issued or approved by the State Council.

中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约、协定对外国投资者准入待遇有更优惠规定的,可以按照相关规定执行。
Where international treaties or agreements concluded or acceded to by the People's Republic of China provide for more preferential treatments for the admission of foreign investment, the relevant provisions may be applied.

第五条 国家依法保护外国投资者在中国境内的投资、收益和其他合法权益。
Article 5 The State protects the investment, income and other legitimate rights and interests of foreign investors in China in accordance with the law.

第六条 在中国境内进行投资活动的外国投资者、外商投资企业,应当遵守中国法律法规,不得危害中国国家安全、损害社会公共利益。
Article 6 Foreign investors and foreign-invested enterprises that conduct investment activities within China shall abide by Chinese laws and regulations and shall not endanger China's national security and harm the public interest.

第七条 国务院商务主管部门、投资主管部门按照职责分工,开展外商投资促进、保护和管理工作;国务院其他有关部门在各自职责范围内,负责外商投资促进、保护和管理的相关工作。
Article 7 The competent departments ofthe State Council responsible for commerce and investment shall, in accordance with the division of responsibilities, carry out the promotion, protection and management of foreign investment; other relevant departments of the State Council shall, within their respective responsibilities, be responsible for the affairs related to the promotion, protection and management of foreign investment.

县级以上地方人民政府有关部门依照法律法规和本级人民政府确定的职责分工,开展外商投资促进、保护和管理工作。
The relevant departments of the local people's governments at or above the county level shall, in accordance with laws and regulations and the division of responsibilities determined by the people's government at the same level, carry out the work relating to the promotion, protection and management of foreign investment.

第八条 外商投资企业职工依法建立工会组织,开展工会活动,维护职工的合法权益。外商投资企业应当为本企业工会提供必要的活动条件。
Article 8 Employees of foreign-invested enterprises may, in accordance with law, establish trade union organizations, carry out trade union activities, and safeguard their legitimate rights and interests. Foreign-invested enterprises shall provide necessary conditions for the trade unions thereof.

 

第二章 投资促进
Chapter II Investment Promotion

第九条 外商投资企业依法平等适用国家支持企业发展的各项政策。
Article 9 Foreign-invested enterprises may, in accordance with the law, equally enjoy the State policies concerning the support of enterprise development.

第十条 制定与外商投资有关的法律、法规、规章,应当采取适当方式征求外商投资企业的意见和建议。
Article 10 Before the formulation of laws, regulations and rules related to foreign investment, appropriate measures shall be taken to solicit opinions and suggestions from foreign-invested enterprises.

与外商投资有关的规范性文件、裁判文书等,应当依法及时公布。
Normative and adjudicative documents related to foreign investment shall, according to law, be made public in a timely manner.

第十一条 国家建立健全外商投资服务体系,为外国投资者和外商投资企业提供法律法规、政策措施、投资项目信息等方面的咨询和服务。
Article 11 The State establishes and improves a system serving foreign investment to provide consultation and services to foreign investors and foreign-invested enterprises on laws and regulations, policy measures, and investment project information.

第十二条 国家与其他国家和地区、国际组织建立多边、双边投资促进合作机制,加强投资领域的国际交流与合作。
Article 12 The State establishes multilateral and bilateral investment promotion cooperation mechanisms with other countries and regions and international organizations, and strengthens international exchanges and cooperation in the field of investment.

第十三条 国家根据需要,设立特殊经济区域,或者在部分地区实行外商投资试验性政策措施,促进外商投资,扩大对外开放。
Article 13 The State may establish special economic zones where needed, or adopt experimental policies and measures for foreign investment in selected regions with a view to promoting foreign investment and expanding opening-up.

第十四条 国家根据国民经济和社会发展需要,鼓励和引导外国投资者在特定行业、领域、地区投资。外国投资者、外商投资企业可以依照法律、行政法规或者国务院的规定享受优惠待遇。
Article 14 The State may, in accordance with the needs of national economic and social development, encourage and guide foreign investors to invest in specific industries, sectors and regions. Foreign investors and foreign-invested enterprises may enjoy preferential treatment in accordance with laws, administrative regulations or the provisions of the State Council.

He has been working in Zhejiang Zhengyun Law Firm since September 2009 and has been practicing as a lawyer for 8 years. ]]> Jianhong Wu Tue, 28 Jan 2020 22:02:26 +0800 With 10 years of experience as a lawyer, he is proficient in the handling of various economic and contract dispute cases and is good at defending criminal cases. ]]> Jinfeng Hou Tue, 28 Jan 2020 22:02:26 +0800 He has been practicing for more than 10 years. He specializes in civil infringement disputes, traffic accident liability disputes, contract disputes and private lending disputes.]]> Zhenghong Lei Tue, 28 Jan 2020 22:02:26 +0800 Since 2000, he has long been engaged in legal education and corporate legal work with rich practical experience.]]> Jie Ni Tue, 28 Jan 2020 22:02:26 +0800 She is working in Zhejiang Zhengyun Law Firm, member of Lawyers Association of Zhejiang. 
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]]> Jianxiong Bao Tue, 28 Jan 2020 22:02:26 +0800 He is working in Zhejiang Zhengyun Law Firm, member of Lawyers Association of Zhejiang. 
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Qingliang Zhu Tue, 28 Jan 2020 22:02:26 +0800 Director of the Litigation Law Research Association of Zhejiang Law Society.
Director of Zhejiang Zhengyun Law Firm.
Education: Bachelor of Law.
Work experience: In 2000, he obtained a lawyer's qualification certificate. He has obtained a large number of criminal, civil and economic cases since he was a lawyer. He has worked as a lawyer for many enterprises and institutions.

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David An Tue, 28 Jan 2020 22:02:27 +0800 He is working in Zhejiang Zhengyun Law Firm, member of Lawyers Association of Zhejiang.
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